Crystal Kolipe explains how to use optical media on OpenBSD

Do you think of optical storage as slow and clunky?

Crystal Kolipe is here to change your mind by showing you new ways to use it!

Data storage on optical media has fallen out of fashion recently, as the cost, capacity and performance has struggled to keep pace with the rapidly advancing offerings of magnetic and solid state technology.

However, if you care about long term data integrity, optical offers the, (almost), unique advantage of being predominantly Write Once Read Many, (W.O.R.M.).

This is useful because once the data has been committed to a WORM disc, it cannot be trivially overwritten in the same way that a freely re-writable hard disk can be. This property of optical media protects our data from a specific class of threats, namely data corruption due to subtle hardware failure, and deliberate data corruption or encryption by malicious software.

Obviously, optical media has failure modes of it's own that we need to consider before committing data to the format exclusively. Deterioration of dye-based optical media can happen over a relatively short period of time, (such as five years), although this is by no means an inherent problem with all optical media. Format obsolescence, meaning the availability of both blank media as well as hardware to read and write it might also be a valid concern, given optical's recent history.

“But it's SLOW, Crystal!”

Okay! Okay! I hear you! Just bear with me alright?

It doesn't have to be that way. Really, it doesn't. A lot of what makes your optical experience so slow is the seek times. So for random access, sure it's rather a disappointment. But what if we eliminated seek times and used it for streaming writes, just like a tape drive?

Ah ha! Hadn't thought of that little trick, had you?

Resumé of bluray disc features

Bluray is the latest generation of optical disc to have gained significant market penetration, (although not as much as DVD and CD). A basic single layer BD-R can hold 23.28 GB of data, (which is 25,000,000,000 bytes), and is usually formatted with a UDF filesystem. Other disc variations are available, most commonly double layer or DL discs, which hold exactly twice the amount of data, or 50,000,000,000 bytes, (46.56 GB).

However, there is no obligation or technical requirement to write a UDF filesystem to a blu-ray disc. When used in this traditional way, BD-R can indeed feel somewhat slow and clunky by modern standards, as random seeking is obviously going to be an order of magnitude slower than even a mechanical hard disk, let alone an SSD.

Where blu-ray can really shine though, especially compared to earlier generations of optical disc, is in streaming reads, (and writes). The data transfer rate is not constant - due to the use of Constant Angular Velocity or CAV, as opposed to Constant Liner Velocity, (CLV), data recorded near the outside of the disc can be accessed more quickly. Typical read rates for a single layer disc range from about 20 Mb/sec at the inside, to 50 Mb/sec and slightly beyond at the outside edge. Dual layer discs tend to be slower, at about 15-40 Mb/sec. Note that, depending on the hardware and media in use, the data transfer rate when writing can even exceed the maximum read speed!

Note

We're concentrating on WORM media here

Although the disc mastering techniques covered in this article can be applied to re-writable, (BD-RE), media as well as write-once, (BD-R), discs, all of the specific examples mentioned were performed using BD-R stock.

There are two main reasons for this. Firstly the write-once, (WORM), properties of BD-R discs are one of the main reasons to use this format for archiving in the first place. Secondly, the chemical composition of the data storage layer in, (HTL), BD-R discs differs significantly from that of recordable DVD and CD, (which is almost always an organic dye). In theory, BD-R media should be more stable in archival applications than one-time recordable DVD and CD, and so far our own tests do indeed seem to have borne this out.

BD-RE discs, on the other hand, employ a data layer similar to that of DVD-RW, DVD+RW, and DVD-RAM discs. In other words it's phase change media.

It should be noted, however, that whilst dual-layer re-writable DVD media was never available on the mass market, dual layer BD-RE media certainly is commercially available. So if your application demands in the order of 50 Gb of re-writable removable storage, then BD-RE is a potential option.

Using blu-ray discs in a streaming fashion - theory

If we expect the data that we're about to put onto optical WORM media to be rarely or never read, (because other copies exist on more convenient media such as harddisks or usb flash drives), then we can happily use our WORM discs in a similar fashion to tapes - writing a whole archive in one go, and accessing the contents sequentially afterwards.

“Sustained 50 Mb/second? OK, now it sounds interesting...”

A quick word about defect management, and sparing...

At first sight, recordable blu-ray disc might seem like just a bigger DVD-R.

However there was actually quite a bit going on during it's development, especially in the area of defect management. Although recordable DVD has flirted with defect management during it's history, most seriously with DVD-RAM, by contrast the blu-ray specification makes it a fundamental part of the system.

This detail might seem unimportant, but it's worth taking a moment to consider the implications, both positive and negative.

Essentially the way it works on BD-R media is that an area, (or several areas), are reserved for 'sparing', I.E. substituting a block from the sparing area when a defective block is encountered elsewhere on the disc during a write.

Clearly with this arrangement we can expect fewer failed recordings due to bad media, however there are other implications too, some of which are not as positive.

Firstly, writing speed suffers, as the drive verifies the written data during the recording process. Whilst verifying your backups is obviously essential, it seems rather naïve to assume that the automatic verify-after-write cycle would catch all possible recording errors. Indeed, the sad reality is that during numerous tests we have indeed seen a few instances where the automatic verification succeeded, and the recording completed without error, only for a subsequent manual verification of the recorded data to fail.

As a result, given that we're going to verify the disc manually afterwards anyway, the usefulness of the automatic write-read-verify cycle is reduced to identifying spot defects on lower quality media, and mitigating them by substituting a different block.

The question is, do we really want to do this? Aside from the fact that having a block of data stored physically elsewhere on the disk would ruin performance of our streaming reads and writes, low quality media is low quality media, after all. If it starts off with some defects, do we really want to commit our valuable data to it? Surely we'd rather find out with a failed recording, and discard the media in favour of another type?

Regardless of the format you're using, if you choose low-quality media then you'll probably eventually pay the price in lost data.

There is also another concern. The same 'sparing' mechanism can be used to allow 'virtual overwriting' of data already on a BD-R disc. Obviously we can't actually re-write a block of data on a WORM disc, but if we just mark the block as bad and re-allocate it then we can effectively achieve the same thing, at least from the point of view of the OS reading the disc in the normal way.

Technically, the original data still exists on the media along with clear evidence that it has been updated at the logical level. However, any standard method of reading the disc will return the replacement data in the block from the sparing area. If we are relying on the write-once nature of the media for data integrity reasons, such as creating a known clean boot disc, this not-quite-worm behaviour should have us concerned.

Admittedly, the bar is quite high for writing malware that could take advantage of this feature. Nevertheless, since we don't really want the sparing area active anyway, we might as well write our discs with defect management disabled. Which is exactly what we'll be doing.

One of the drives we used for testing, (not the best one).

Hardware

We used the following four blu-ray disc recorders in our tests: Pioneer-208M, Pioneer BDR-209D, Pioneer BDR-212M, and Asus BW-16D1HT.

All of these drives have very similar specifications on paper. Each promises a nominal 16× write speed to single layer BD-R media, and a 12× read speed from the same. The biggest difference is probably that the BDR-209D does not support BDXL media, (triple and quadruple layer discs with capacities of 100 Gb and 128 Gb).

In fact, the claimed reading and writing speeds are pretty typical for modern blu-ray disc drives. These tend to be virtually the same even between drives from different manufacturers. The maximum writing speed to dual layer media is typically 14×, with 8× read, and the speeds tend to go down as the number of layers increases, another reason why the larger capacity of BDXL isn't as attractive as it might first appear.

However, paper specifications only tell part of the story. Overall reliability, and subtle quirks of behaviour are often what end up differentiating one drive from another. In this regard, we must say that the Asus drive was a bit of a disappointment.

To be fair, we do have much more experience with the Pioneer models, but that also means that we're very aware of their own quirks, hence the reason for including at least one drive from another manufacturer in our tests in the first place. Honestly, we have no reason to prefer one over the other, so any apparent bias is completely unintentional.

Media

Speaking of quirks, one thing that has always frustrated us with the Pioneer recorders was their less than stella acceptance of Verbatim brand media. Most of the time it would work. But other times it would fail spectacularly. In the past, this wasn't really an issue as there was plenty of other blank media to choose from. In recent times, though, the number of manufacturers of blank blu-ray discs has decreased quite considerably. Being able to use the Verbatim brand discs with confidence would certainly be useful.

To make matters worse, our go-to BD-R media of choice - TDK - hasn't been manufactured for many years now. Of course, we hold a lot of stock in reserve, but one day it's going to run out.

Crystal's (not so) secret stash of known good BD-R media.

Or is it? A nasty surprise is imminent.

Software environment

The platform we'll be using to write to our BD-R drives as if they were tapes is OpenBSD. However virtually everything we do here is portable to other BSD systems and even to Linux without too much difficulty. We won't be using a tonne of proprietary software, just two open source packages from the OpenBSD ports tree, namely dvd+rw-tools and cdrtools. This software has remained unchanged for many OpenBSD releases, and can be considered fairly mature.

If you want to build dvd+rw-tools and cdrtools from source, you'll need a few other small programs installed for the build itself, but nothing that should cause any difficulties.

Take note!

Avoid LTH media at all costs

Another thing that differentiates recordable blu-ray from DVD-R and CD-R, is the chemical make-up of the media itself. In simple terms, one-time recordable DVDs and CDs use a colored dye that changes color when a laser is focused on it in a particular way. This technology certainly works to store data, but it's long term archival properties are dubious. The recording layer is somewhat analogous to photographic film, and can deteriorate over a relatively short period of time to the point where those changes in color are no longer sufficiently discernable to read back the data that was once written.

Blu-ray changed all of that, and the recording layer in traditional BD-R media does not rely on organic dyes. The laser changes other physical properties of the structure in order to record the data, and these properties are supposedly much more stable over the long term. Visually, the recorded area changes from high reflectivity to low reflectivity, hence the term HTL recording to describe this process.

Of course, as might be expected, new technology comes at a price. In response to this, so called LTH media was developed, which basically takes a step backwards and reverts to using an organic dye for the recording layer. It's cheaper, in part because it allows the discs to be manufactured on a production line that was originally intended for recordable DVDs, but from a purely technical point of view, LTH media offers no advantages whatsoever.

In the distant past we did some tests with LTH discs, to see just how bad they were. Even with our low expectations, the results were quite disappointing.

Writing discs the traditional way

The way you're intended or 'supposed' to use BD-R on a BSD system goes something like this:

- Build an ISO-9660 or UDF filesystem image
- Write this image to a blank disc
- Mount it as a filesystem and access the contents

A typical sequence of commands might therefore be:

# mkisofs -v -o disc_image /path/to/data

# growisofs -Z /dev/rcd0c=disc_image

# mount /dev/cd0c /mnt

We can even combine the functionality of the first two commands and create the image on the fly:

# growisofs -Z /dev/rcd0c /path/to/data

# mount /dev/cd0c /mnt

Writing discs our way

Instead of creating an ISO-9660 or UDF filesystem image, we could just write a TAR archive straight out to the disc:

# tar -cvf disc_image /path/to/data

# growisofs -Z /dev/rcd0c=disc_image

Reading it back is then as quick and easy as reading any tar archive:

# tar -xvf /dev/rcd0c

Note that using the raw character device for the blu-ray recorder will usually give better performance than the block device. Reading should progress at the fastest speed possible for the media, as we won't be doing any random seeking.

Top tip!

Accessing re-writable media as a block device

If you're using re-writable media such as BD-RE, DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, or DVD+RW, it should be possible to access it under OpenBSD as a regular block device using commands such as dd. In other words, you don't need to use growisofs to write a complete image to the disc in one go, (although you can still do this). CD-RW should also be accessible in the same way using any modern drive, although very old drives might not support this mode of operation.

This means that you can do something like the following to overwrite old data on such an optical disc:

# dd if=/dev/random of=/dev/rcd0c bs=1m

Top tip!

Disabling defect management and sparing

As we mentioned earlier, it's preferable for our purposes to disable sparing and write to the disc directly. By default, growisofs does not do this, but instead formats blank BD-R media in such a way that it contains a sparing area.

Luckily, a command line option exists to disable this behaviour: -use-the-force-luke:spare=none.

Forgetting to supply this option can result in a ruined disc, as once the sparing area has been created on write-once media that action can't be undone. The easiest way to ensure that we always invoke growisofs with the spare=none option is to create a shell alias.

Adding the following to /root/.profile will create an alias called optical_disc which also includes the -Z option, so we only need to specify the device and the file containing the image we want to write to it:

alias optical_disc='/usr/local/bin/growisofs -use-the-force-luke:spare=none -Z'

This new alias can then be called in the following way to record a disc:

optical_disc /dev/rcd0c=/path/to/disc_image

The examples given below assume that you have set up this optical_disc alias.

Encryption - a convenient addition

Whereas creating an encrypted ISO-9660 or UDF volume would be somewhat tedious, we can easily encrypt our tar archive with a symmetric cypher using the OpenSSL command line tool. This is part of the base installation of OpenBSD, just as it is with about almost every other BSD or Linux system.

To produce an encrypted image, we might use an invocation such as this:

# openssl enc -chacha -in disc_image -out disc_image.enc -k foobar

In this example, we have specified the literal password 'foobar' on the command line. If you are not recording discs on a workstation that is dedicated to the task, other ways to supply the password such as interactively or reading from a file, might be preferred. It's also possible to supply an encryption key directly, using the -K option. Refer to the manual page for the openssl(1) utility, specifically the ENC command, for more details.

Once we have our encrypted tar archive, we can write it to a BD-R disc in just the same way that we did before, (except this time using our newly defined shell alias optical_disc):

# optical_disc /dev/rcd0c=disc_image.enc

Decryption can be done on the fly, and since any modern CPU should easily be able to decrypt 50 Mb of chacha ciphertext per second, it's very unlikely to impact our streaming read performance:

# openssl enc -d -chacha -in /dev/rcd0c | tar -xvf -

Top tip!

Setting the TAPE environment variable

Assuming that we don't already have a real tape drive in the machine that we're using for these experiments, we can save time and make life easier by setting the TAPE environment variable to direct the tar utility to use standard input and output by default, instead of /dev/rst0.

This is particularly useful if we intend to pipe the decrypted output of the openssl command to tar, as shown above.

More details about configuring tar can be found in it's manual page, but essentially we probably want to add a line such as the following to /root/.profile:

export TAPE = /dev/stdin

Alternatively, if we intend to be reading mostly un-encrypted tar volumes from optical disc, we could set TAPE to /dev/rcd0c.

Stream ciphers verses block ciphers

Observant readers will have noticed that in the example above we encrypted using the ChaCha stream cipher, rather than something more common such as AES.

Technically, there is no reason why we can't encrypt our TAR archive with a block cipher like AES or blowfish. However, when we read it back from the raw disk device we will effectively be padding the last block to the device's block size. This will cause the openssl utility to throw an error:

bad decrypt

12684974996032:error:06FFF064:digital envelope routines:CRYPTO_internal:bad decrypt:/usr/src/lib/libcrypto/evp/evp_enc.c:549:

Our decrypted data will be intact, but it will have garbage appended to it. The tar utility will in most cases ignore this, so despite the scary and somewhat cryptic error thrown by the decryption code, things will work as expected.

If you want to see this concept in action without wasting a blank disc, the following commands will simulate the padding of the last block using a local file:

# export TAPE=/dev/stdin

# cd /tmp

# mkdir padding_test

# cd padding_test

# echo foo > 1

# echo bar > 2

# echo baz > 3

# tar -cvf my_archive.tar ?

1

2

3

# openssl enc -aes-192-cbc -in my_archive.tar -out my_archive.tar.enc -k password

# dd if=my_archive.tar.enc of=my_archive.tar.enc.padded bs=4k conv=sync

# ls -l

total 80

-rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 4 Jan 1 15:45 1

-rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 4 Jan 1 15:45 2

-rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 4 Jan 1 15:45 3

-rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 10240 Jan 1 15:49 my_archive.tar

-rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 10272 Jan 1 15:50 my_archive.tar.enc

-rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 12288 Jan 1 15:46 my_archive.tar.enc.padded

# openssl enc -d -aes-192-cbc -in my_archive.tar.enc.padded -k password | tar -xv

1

2

3

bad decrypt

11640047569472:error:06FFF064:digital envelope routines:CRYPTO_internal:bad decrypt:/usr/src/lib/libcrypto/evp/evp_enc.c:549:

Of course, even when using a stream cipher we are still appending garbage to the TAR archive, (which tar again ignores). The difference is that the decompression routines don't care.

A real streaming write example

Enough theory, let's waste a disc for real! Here is the output from a successful write of 22 Gb of data to a BD-R SL disc:

Executing 'builtin_dd if=image.enc of=/dev/rcd0c obs=32k seek=0'

/dev/rcd0c: "Current Write Speed" is 12.3x4390KBps.

2162688/23642767376 ( 0.0%) @0.0x, remaining 1093:06 RBU 100.0% UBU 3.0%

2162688/23642767376 ( 0.0%) @0.0x, remaining 1639:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2162688/23642767376 ( 0.0%) @0.0x, remaining 2368:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

12124160/23642767376 ( 0.1%) @0.7x, remaining 519:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

63143936/23642767376 ( 0.3%) @3.4x, remaining 118:15 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

140410880/23642767376 ( 0.6%) @5.1x, remaining 64:09 RBU 99.9% UBU 100.0%

218234880/23642767376 ( 0.9%) @5.2x, remaining 46:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

296583168/23642767376 ( 1.3%) @5.2x, remaining 38:02 RBU 99.9% UBU 100.0%

375521280/23642767376 ( 1.6%) @5.2x, remaining 34:04 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

454983680/23642767376 ( 1.9%) @5.3x, remaining 30:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

535035904/23642767376 ( 2.3%) @5.3x, remaining 28:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

615645184/23642767376 ( 2.6%) @5.4x, remaining 26:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

696844288/23642767376 ( 2.9%) @5.4x, remaining 25:14 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

778567680/23642767376 ( 3.3%) @5.4x, remaining 24:28 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

860880896/23642767376 ( 3.6%) @5.5x, remaining 23:22 RBU 99.9% UBU 100.0%

943718400/23642767376 ( 4.0%) @5.5x, remaining 22:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1027145728/23642767376 ( 4.3%) @5.5x, remaining 22:01 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1111162880/23642767376 ( 4.7%) @5.6x, remaining 21:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1195704320/23642767376 ( 5.1%) @5.6x, remaining 20:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1280835584/23642767376 ( 5.4%) @5.7x, remaining 20:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1365049344/23642767376 ( 5.8%) @5.6x, remaining 19:51 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1448640512/23642767376 ( 6.1%) @5.6x, remaining 19:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1535442944/23642767376 ( 6.5%) @5.8x, remaining 19:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1622769664/23642767376 ( 6.9%) @5.8x, remaining 18:46 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

1710653440/23642767376 ( 7.2%) @5.8x, remaining 18:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

1799094272/23642767376 ( 7.6%) @5.9x, remaining 18:12 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

1888124928/23642767376 ( 8.0%) @5.9x, remaining 17:51 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

1977745408/23642767376 ( 8.4%) @6.0x, remaining 17:31 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2067857408/23642767376 ( 8.7%) @6.0x, remaining 17:23 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2158559232/23642767376 ( 9.1%) @6.0x, remaining 17:05 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2249850880/23642767376 ( 9.5%) @6.1x, remaining 16:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2341666816/23642767376 ( 9.9%) @6.1x, remaining 16:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2434072576/23642767376 (10.3%) @6.1x, remaining 16:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2527068160/23642767376 (10.7%) @6.2x, remaining 16:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2620555264/23642767376 (11.1%) @6.2x, remaining 16:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2710208512/23642767376 (11.5%) @6.0x, remaining 15:50 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2804809728/23642767376 (11.9%) @6.3x, remaining 15:43 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2900033536/23642767376 (12.3%) @6.3x, remaining 15:29 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2995748864/23642767376 (12.7%) @6.4x, remaining 15:16 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

3092021248/23642767376 (13.1%) @6.4x, remaining 15:10 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3188883456/23642767376 (13.5%) @6.4x, remaining 14:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3286302720/23642767376 (13.9%) @6.5x, remaining 14:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3384311808/23642767376 (14.3%) @6.5x, remaining 14:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3482877952/23642767376 (14.7%) @6.5x, remaining 14:28 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

3581968384/23642767376 (15.2%) @6.6x, remaining 14:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3681648640/23642767376 (15.6%) @6.6x, remaining 14:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3781885952/23642767376 (16.0%) @6.7x, remaining 14:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3882647552/23642767376 (16.4%) @6.7x, remaining 13:49 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3984064512/23642767376 (16.9%) @6.7x, remaining 13:44 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

4081385472/23642767376 (17.3%) @6.5x, remaining 13:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4183785472/23642767376 (17.7%) @6.8x, remaining 13:29 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4286840832/23642767376 (18.1%) @6.8x, remaining 13:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4390453248/23642767376 (18.6%) @6.9x, remaining 13:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4494557184/23642767376 (19.0%) @6.9x, remaining 13:03 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4599316480/23642767376 (19.5%) @7.0x, remaining 12:54 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4704600064/23642767376 (19.9%) @7.0x, remaining 12:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4810440704/23642767376 (20.3%) @7.0x, remaining 12:39 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

4916805632/23642767376 (20.8%) @7.1x, remaining 12:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5023793152/23642767376 (21.2%) @7.1x, remaining 12:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5131304960/23642767376 (21.7%) @7.1x, remaining 12:15 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

5239373824/23642767376 (22.2%) @7.2x, remaining 12:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5344690176/23642767376 (22.6%) @7.0x, remaining 11:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5449678848/23642767376 (23.1%) @7.0x, remaining 11:54 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5559451648/23642767376 (23.5%) @7.3x, remaining 11:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5669715968/23642767376 (24.0%) @7.3x, remaining 11:37 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5780602880/23642767376 (24.4%) @7.4x, remaining 11:32 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5891981312/23642767376 (24.9%) @7.4x, remaining 11:23 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6003949568/23642767376 (25.4%) @7.4x, remaining 11:15 RBU 99.9% UBU 93.9%

6116540416/23642767376 (25.9%) @7.5x, remaining 11:10 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

6229655552/23642767376 (26.3%) @7.5x, remaining 11:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6343294976/23642767376 (26.8%) @7.5x, remaining 10:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

6457524224/23642767376 (27.3%) @7.6x, remaining 10:49 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6572310528/23642767376 (27.8%) @7.6x, remaining 10:41 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

6687686656/23642767376 (28.3%) @7.7x, remaining 10:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

6798540800/23642767376 (28.8%) @7.4x, remaining 10:29 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

6914998272/23642767376 (29.2%) @7.7x, remaining 10:21 RBU 99.9% UBU 93.9%

7031980032/23642767376 (29.7%) @7.8x, remaining 10:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7149584384/23642767376 (30.2%) @7.8x, remaining 10:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7267745792/23642767376 (30.7%) @7.8x, remaining 10:01 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

7386365952/23642767376 (31.2%) @7.9x, remaining 9:56 RBU 99.9% UBU 93.9%

7505674240/23642767376 (31.7%) @7.9x, remaining 9:49 RBU 99.9% UBU 93.9%

7625408512/23642767376 (32.3%) @8.0x, remaining 9:41 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

7745896448/23642767376 (32.8%) @8.0x, remaining 9:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

7866843136/23642767376 (33.3%) @8.0x, remaining 9:29 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

7988314112/23642767376 (33.8%) @8.1x, remaining 9:22 RBU 99.9% UBU 93.9%

8105099264/23642767376 (34.3%) @7.8x, remaining 9:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

8227684352/23642767376 (34.8%) @8.1x, remaining 9:10 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

8350859264/23642767376 (35.3%) @8.2x, remaining 9:03 RBU 100.1% UBU 93.9%

8474525696/23642767376 (35.8%) @8.2x, remaining 8:58 RBU 99.9% UBU 93.9%

8598945792/23642767376 (36.4%) @8.3x, remaining 8:51 RBU 99.9% UBU 93.9%

8723759104/23642767376 (36.9%) @8.3x, remaining 8:46 RBU 99.9% UBU 93.9%

8849195008/23642767376 (37.4%) @8.3x, remaining 8:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

8975187968/23642767376 (38.0%) @8.4x, remaining 8:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

9101639680/23642767376 (38.5%) @8.4x, remaining 8:28 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

9213575168/23642767376 (39.0%) @7.4x, remaining 8:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

9309126656/23642767376 (39.4%) @6.3x, remaining 8:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

9431515136/23642767376 (39.9%) @8.1x, remaining 8:14 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

9560129536/23642767376 (40.4%) @8.5x, remaining 8:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

9689268224/23642767376 (41.0%) @8.6x, remaining 8:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

9818865664/23642767376 (41.5%) @8.6x, remaining 7:55 RBU 100.1% UBU 93.9%

9949216768/23642767376 (42.1%) @8.7x, remaining 7:49 RBU 99.9% UBU 93.9%

10079993856/23642767376 (42.6%) @8.7x, remaining 7:42 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

10211328000/23642767376 (43.2%) @8.7x, remaining 7:37 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

10343317504/23642767376 (43.7%) @8.8x, remaining 7:31 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

10475732992/23642767376 (44.3%) @8.8x, remaining 7:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

10608803840/23642767376 (44.9%) @8.8x, remaining 7:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

10742464512/23642767376 (45.4%) @8.9x, remaining 7:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

10871013376/23642767376 (46.0%) @8.5x, remaining 7:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

11005755392/23642767376 (46.6%) @8.9x, remaining 7:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

11140956160/23642767376 (47.1%) @9.0x, remaining 6:56 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

11276877824/23642767376 (47.7%) @9.0x, remaining 6:51 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

11413258240/23642767376 (48.3%) @9.1x, remaining 6:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

11550228480/23642767376 (48.9%) @9.1x, remaining 6:38 RBU 99.9% UBU 93.9%

11687821312/23642767376 (49.4%) @9.1x, remaining 6:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

11825872896/23642767376 (50.0%) @9.2x, remaining 6:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

11960221696/23642767376 (50.6%) @8.9x, remaining 6:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

12099485696/23642767376 (51.2%) @9.2x, remaining 6:16 RBU 99.9% UBU 90.9%

12233474048/23642767376 (51.7%) @8.9x, remaining 6:11 RBU 99.9% UBU 90.9%

12373753856/23642767376 (52.3%) @9.3x, remaining 6:05 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

12514557952/23642767376 (52.9%) @9.4x, remaining 6:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

12656017408/23642767376 (53.5%) @9.4x, remaining 5:54 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

12798033920/23642767376 (54.1%) @9.4x, remaining 5:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

12940509184/23642767376 (54.7%) @9.5x, remaining 5:43 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

13083639808/23642767376 (55.3%) @9.5x, remaining 5:37 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

13227327488/23642767376 (55.9%) @9.5x, remaining 5:31 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

13371441152/23642767376 (56.6%) @9.6x, remaining 5:26 RBU 100.1% UBU 90.9%

13504839680/23642767376 (57.1%) @8.9x, remaining 5:21 RBU 99.9% UBU 90.9%

13650165760/23642767376 (57.7%) @9.7x, remaining 5:15 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

13796081664/23642767376 (58.4%) @9.7x, remaining 5:10 RBU 100.0% UBU 87.9%

13942423552/23642767376 (59.0%) @9.7x, remaining 5:04 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

14089453568/23642767376 (59.6%) @9.8x, remaining 4:59 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

14237073408/23642767376 (60.2%) @9.8x, remaining 4:53 RBU 100.0% UBU 87.9%

14385217536/23642767376 (60.8%) @9.8x, remaining 4:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 87.9%

14533722112/23642767376 (61.5%) @9.9x, remaining 4:43 RBU 99.9% UBU 90.9%

14683045888/23642767376 (62.1%) @9.9x, remaining 4:37 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

14826602496/23642767376 (62.7%) @9.5x, remaining 4:32 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

14977040384/23642767376 (63.3%) @10.0x, remaining 4:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

15127904256/23642767376 (64.0%) @10.0x, remaining 4:21 RBU 99.9% UBU 90.9%

15279489024/23642767376 (64.6%) @10.1x, remaining 4:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

15431467008/23642767376 (65.3%) @10.1x, remaining 4:11 RBU 99.9% UBU 90.9%

15583936512/23642767376 (65.9%) @10.1x, remaining 4:05 RBU 100.1% UBU 90.9%

15737159680/23642767376 (66.6%) @10.2x, remaining 4:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 87.9%

15890841600/23642767376 (67.2%) @10.2x, remaining 3:55 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

16045244416/23642767376 (67.9%) @10.3x, remaining 3:49 RBU 100.0% UBU 90.9%

16193323008/23642767376 (68.5%) @9.8x, remaining 3:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 87.9%

16348741632/23642767376 (69.1%) @10.3x, remaining 3:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 87.9%

16504684544/23642767376 (69.8%) @10.4x, remaining 3:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 87.9%

16661184512/23642767376 (70.5%) @10.4x, remaining 3:28 RBU 99.9% UBU 90.9%

16818208768/23642767376 (71.1%) @10.4x, remaining 3:23 RBU 99.9% UBU 87.9%

16975921152/23642767376 (71.8%) @10.5x, remaining 3:18 RBU 99.9% UBU 87.9%

17133928448/23642767376 (72.5%) @10.5x, remaining 3:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 87.9%

17292886016/23642767376 (73.1%) @10.6x, remaining 3:08 RBU 99.9% UBU 87.9%

17451778048/23642767376 (73.8%) @10.6x, remaining 3:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 72.7%

17604542464/23642767376 (74.5%) @10.1x, remaining 2:58 RBU 99.9% UBU 69.7%

17758126080/23642767376 (75.1%) @10.2x, remaining 2:52 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

17911939072/23642767376 (75.8%) @10.2x, remaining 2:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

18065522688/23642767376 (76.4%) @10.2x, remaining 2:43 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

18213765120/23642767376 (77.0%) @9.8x, remaining 2:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 39.4%

18356862976/23642767376 (77.6%) @9.5x, remaining 2:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

18500190208/23642767376 (78.2%) @9.5x, remaining 2:29 RBU 100.0% UBU 33.3%

18643091456/23642767376 (78.9%) @9.5x, remaining 2:25 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

18786189312/23642767376 (79.5%) @9.5x, remaining 2:20 RBU 100.0% UBU 39.4%

18909724672/23642767376 (80.0%) @8.2x, remaining 2:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

19047219200/23642767376 (80.6%) @9.1x, remaining 2:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 33.3%

19184451584/23642767376 (81.1%) @9.1x, remaining 2:08 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

19321257984/23642767376 (81.7%) @9.1x, remaining 2:05 RBU 100.0% UBU 33.3%

19452395520/23642767376 (82.3%) @8.7x, remaining 2:01 RBU 99.9% UBU 33.3%

19584450560/23642767376 (82.8%) @8.8x, remaining 1:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

19716407296/23642767376 (83.4%) @8.8x, remaining 1:53 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

19843678208/23642767376 (83.9%) @8.5x, remaining 1:49 RBU 99.9% UBU 33.3%

19975995392/23642767376 (84.5%) @8.8x, remaining 1:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 39.4%

20102447104/23642767376 (85.0%) @8.4x, remaining 1:41 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

20217790464/23642767376 (85.5%) @7.7x, remaining 1:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 39.4%

20343291904/23642767376 (86.0%) @8.3x, remaining 1:35 RBU 99.9% UBU 36.4%

20470661120/23642767376 (86.6%) @8.5x, remaining 1:31 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

20597211136/23642767376 (87.1%) @8.4x, remaining 1:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 33.3%

20723466240/23642767376 (87.7%) @8.4x, remaining 1:23 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

20844806144/23642767376 (88.2%) @8.1x, remaining 1:20 RBU 99.9% UBU 33.3%

20966866944/23642767376 (88.7%) @8.1x, remaining 1:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 30.3%

21087125504/23642767376 (89.2%) @8.0x, remaining 1:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 33.3%

21208399872/23642767376 (89.7%) @8.1x, remaining 1:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

21330558976/23642767376 (90.2%) @8.1x, remaining 1:06 RBU 100.0% UBU 33.3%

21452029952/23642767376 (90.7%) @8.1x, remaining 1:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 33.3%

21567832064/23642767376 (91.2%) @7.7x, remaining 0:59 RBU 100.0% UBU 33.3%

21684584448/23642767376 (91.7%) @7.8x, remaining 0:56 RBU 100.0% UBU 33.3%

21800091648/23642767376 (92.2%) @7.7x, remaining 0:52 RBU 99.8% UBU 36.4%

21919105024/23642767376 (92.7%) @7.9x, remaining 0:49 RBU 100.0% UBU 33.3%

21995454464/23642767376 (93.0%) @5.1x, remaining 0:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 30.3%

22111420416/23642767376 (93.5%) @7.7x, remaining 0:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 30.3%

22228992000/23642767376 (94.0%) @7.8x, remaining 0:40 RBU 99.9% UBU 30.3%

22346203136/23642767376 (94.5%) @7.8x, remaining 0:37 RBU 99.9% UBU 30.3%

22458204160/23642767376 (95.0%) @7.4x, remaining 0:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 30.3%

22573219840/23642767376 (95.5%) @7.6x, remaining 0:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 30.3%

22686007296/23642767376 (96.0%) @7.5x, remaining 0:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 27.3%

22797025280/23642767376 (96.4%) @7.4x, remaining 0:24 RBU 99.9% UBU 33.3%

22901161984/23642767376 (96.9%) @6.9x, remaining 0:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 30.3%

23015981056/23642767376 (97.3%) @7.6x, remaining 0:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 27.3%

23126278144/23642767376 (97.8%) @7.3x, remaining 0:14 RBU 100.0% UBU 33.3%

23238279168/23642767376 (98.3%) @7.4x, remaining 0:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 27.3%

23345135616/23642767376 (98.7%) @7.1x, remaining 0:08 RBU 100.0% UBU 33.3%

23455203328/23642767376 (99.2%) @7.3x, remaining 0:05 RBU 100.0% UBU 36.4%

23564648448/23642767376 (99.7%) @7.3x, remaining 0:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 33.3%

/dev/rcd0c: flushing cache

/dev/rcd0c: closing track

/dev/rcd0c: closing session

/dev/rcd0c: reloading tray

The growisofs program writes a status line to the output every three seconds, so this recording actually took almost exactly ten minutes. Not bad, huh?

As expected, the actual writing speed gradually increased from the middle of the disc, starting at about 21 Mb/second and peaking at about 43 Mb/second before dropping slightly. The reason for the drop at about 77% is not known, it's entirely possible that the host machine wasn't able to sustain the required throughput. The momentary drop at 9309126656 bytes was a common occurrence with this brand of media, and the drive could be audibly heard spinning down and up again at this point. Most likely it is an expected artifact of the drive recording the discs at slightly different speed in different zones.

This particular example is an Acu-Disc brand BD-R SL being written in the BDR-212M. Of course, the data verified just fine.

Top tip!

Archiving large > 32 Gb files with TAR

If we're using single layer media, (BD-R SL), exclusively, we won't have any problems with individual file sizes.

However, once we move to dual layer 50 Gb, (well 46.6 Gb), media, there exists the possibility that we might at some point want to archive a file larger than 32 gigabytes. This is not possible using the tar implementation in the OpenBSD base system, (at least as of OpenBSD 7.2), as it doesn't support files of this size.

The quickest and most convenient work-around is to install gnu tar from the ports tree. This can then be accessed as gtar, and is capable of writing such large files to a tar archive. Note that it will also be necessary to use gtar, or another capable program to extract the archive with these large files afterwards as once again the version of tar in the OpenBSD base system cannot do this.

There is also a limit of 100 characters on filenames, and 256 characters for each file path when using the tar utility in the base system.

Of course, large files can also be divided into smaller parts using the split utility, and those parts archived with tar in the normal way.

Alternatively, a single large file that was to be written to a disc on it's own could be written directly without the use of a tar archive at all. However, be aware that when reading it back it will be padded to the block size of the source media. Whether this is an issue or not depends on your specific application.

More about media

As noted near the beginning of this article, our preferred BD-R media of choice for many years has been TDK blanks. Personally, I don't ever remember having one of our old stock fail on me, and all of the old TDK BD-R discs that we have written and still have in our archives are readable today. The oldest ones were written in 2013, so that's a zero failure rate for optical media after nine years.

For comparison, we've had some very low quality DVD-R discs fail after just a few years. Many DVD-R, (and therefore dye-based), discs have indeed remained readable after fifteen years or even longer, but we're not aware of any brand that we've used in any significant quantity having a zero failure rate.

As we also mentioned earlier, we have experienced some issues using Verbatim brand discs in the Pioneer recorders. However these were always problems at the time of recording, and never data integrity problems that appeared after a period in storage.

Unfortunately, things changed recently. If you switch to a theme other than the 1980s text-only theme, and look very closely at the picture above this text showing our stack of TDK media, you'll notice that most of it is the inkjet printable variation. This is new old stock that was purchased more recently, and for some reason, it's not been a big success. Neither the Pioneer drives, nor the Asus drive we used for these tests seems to like it very much, and we've ended up with a lot of wasted media.

With our stocks of known good media being depleted and nothing to replace it with, I was quite literally pulling my hair out in desperation. Until, that is, a colleague based in the United Kingdom who was also a large consumer of TDK BD-R media and knew of my passion for it, sent me some samples of Acu-Disc blanks:.

Are these the spiritual successor to Crystal's beloved TDK discs?

Maybe, but only time will tell...

Initial tests with the Acu-Disc brand blanks seem promising. So far all of the data I've written to them has read back without error, but we'll have to wait ten years or so to do a fair comparison of their archival properties compared to the old TDK media.

Of course, in reality, since these discs are freely available and the others are not, I'll be using them for the time being in any case.

When things go wrong

In an ideal world, every disc would write correctly every time. Unfortunately, we've seen that is not the case. To make matters worse, debugging the issues is both expensive in terms of wasted media, and quite time consuming when writing 50 Gb of data to a single BD-R DL disc and then verifying it again can take over an hour.

One of the more surprising issues we've noticed is that the Asus brand drive doesn't seem to want to write to any BD-R DL media at all:

Executing 'builtin_dd if=/home/image.enc of=/dev/rcd0c obs=32k seek=0'

/dev/rcd0c: "Current Write Speed" is 8.2x4390KBps.

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

0/43414077456 ( 0.0%) @0x, remaining ??:?? RBU 100.0% UBU 0.0%

:-( unable to WRITE@LBA=0h: Input/output error

:-( write failed: Input/output error

All but one of the BD-R DL discs which refused to write in the Asus drive later recorded just fine in one of the Pioneer devices. To be fair, this might be a software issue, and I haven't really investigated the exact cause yet. The output above was from trying to record a Verbatim BD-R DL disc.

Annoyingly though, the problem also causes the drive to hang, requiring a power-cycle to bring it back to life. At the same time, the OpenBSD kernel reports a timeout on the SATA bus:

atascsi_atapi_cmd_done, timeout

atascsi_atapi_cmd_done, timeout

atascsi_atapi_cmd_done, timeout

atascsi_atapi_cmd_done, timeout

More issues with BD-R DL discs

It's hardly surprising that dual layer media is more error prone, after all the second data layer has to be read by literally shining a laser light through the first layer.

One tendency we've noticed is that whilst BD-R DL media will often write at full speed, reading it back sometimes gets noticeably slower and more error prone once we reach a few gigabytes into the disk. Understanding a bit about how the data is actually recorded will help to explain the reason behind this effect.

The disc in the image isConsider a BD-R DL disc which has been recorded with about 35 Gb of data. So the first layer, which is written starting from the centre of the disc and progressing towards the outer edge, has been completely used.. The second layer, which is written starting from the edge and working back towards the central hub, has only been partially written.

The layer-switch point usually occurs at 25,000,000,000 bytes into the datastream, which is about 23.3 Gb. So on this disc, only about 12 Gb of the second layer was needed. We can actually see how the disc is darker, (lower reflectivity), around the outer part of the recorded surface, (where it has been written on both layers), and lighter, (higher reflectivity), in the inner ring, (where only one layer has been written). The unrecorded areas near the hub and the very edge of the disc are much lighter, (even higher reflectivity). This clearly demonstrates the HTL recording scheme.

It should now be immediately clear why errors tend to show up after reading a little way into such a disc. The first few gigabytes of data on the first layer don't have data recorded in the corresponding position on the second layer. Not only do we not have to worry about any optical interference from the second layer at read time, but since it hasn't been recorded there is no risk that the already written data on the first layer has been damaged in any way.

Tests in which we wrote BD-R DL discs above their rated speed occasionally produced discs with such a defect - data could be read normally up to the point where the second layer encroached on the first, but after that point it either read very slowly or failed to read back at all.

Overall, though, we've had good success with both BD-R SL and BD-R DL discs, including on most occasions recording them above their rated speed.

Benchmarks

After numerous tests, recording over one hundred blank discs of different types, we have enough raw results to draw some solid conclusions.

- Single layer media of good quality will start writing at about 20 Mb/second, and progress to about 50 Mb/second at the disc edge
- Dual layer media of good quality will start writing at about 15 Mb/second, and progress to about 35 Mb/second at the disc edge

Included below is the console output from writing the same data, (about 40 Gb), to two different brands of BD-R DL media:

First, recording to a Verbatim BD-R DL:

Executing 'builtin_dd if=image.enc of=/dev/rcd0c obs=32k seek=0'

/dev/rcd0c: "Current Write Speed" is 8.2x4390KBps.

2162688/43360860176 ( 0.0%) @0.0x, remaining 2004:51 RBU 100.0% UBU 3.0%

2162688/43360860176 ( 0.0%) @0.0x, remaining 3007:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

4194304/43360860176 ( 0.0%) @0.1x, remaining 2239:41 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

58425344/43360860176 ( 0.1%) @3.6x, remaining 197:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

133660672/43360860176 ( 0.3%) @5.0x, remaining 102:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

209420288/43360860176 ( 0.5%) @5.0x, remaining 78:59 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

285736960/43360860176 ( 0.7%) @5.1x, remaining 65:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

362577920/43360860176 ( 0.8%) @5.1x, remaining 57:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

439943168/43360860176 ( 1.0%) @5.1x, remaining 53:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

517865472/43360860176 ( 1.2%) @5.2x, remaining 49:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

596312064/43360860176 ( 1.4%) @5.2x, remaining 46:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

675315712/43360860176 ( 1.6%) @5.2x, remaining 45:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

754843648/43360860176 ( 1.7%) @5.3x, remaining 43:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

834928640/43360860176 ( 1.9%) @5.3x, remaining 42:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

915537920/43360860176 ( 2.1%) @5.4x, remaining 40:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

996704256/43360860176 ( 2.3%) @5.4x, remaining 39:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1053294592/43360860176 ( 2.4%) @3.8x, remaining 40:10 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1128660992/43360860176 ( 2.6%) @5.0x, remaining 39:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1183711232/43360860176 ( 2.7%) @3.7x, remaining 39:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1266679808/43360860176 ( 2.9%) @5.5x, remaining 38:46 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1350107136/43360860176 ( 3.1%) @5.5x, remaining 37:51 RBU 99.9% UBU 100.0%

1422589952/43360860176 ( 3.3%) @4.8x, remaining 37:20 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1507065856/43360860176 ( 3.5%) @5.6x, remaining 37:01 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1592066048/43360860176 ( 3.7%) @5.6x, remaining 36:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1677590528/43360860176 ( 3.9%) @5.7x, remaining 35:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1763704832/43360860176 ( 4.1%) @5.7x, remaining 35:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1850310656/43360860176 ( 4.3%) @5.8x, remaining 34:46 RBU 99.9% UBU 100.0%

1937473536/43360860176 ( 4.5%) @5.8x, remaining 34:12 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2025160704/43360860176 ( 4.7%) @5.8x, remaining 34:01 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2113404928/43360860176 ( 4.9%) @5.9x, remaining 33:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2202206208/43360860176 ( 5.1%) @5.9x, remaining 33:01 RBU 99.9% UBU 100.0%

2291499008/43360860176 ( 5.3%) @5.9x, remaining 32:51 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2381348864/43360860176 ( 5.5%) @6.0x, remaining 32:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2471755776/43360860176 ( 5.7%) @6.0x, remaining 32:15 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2562719744/43360860176 ( 5.9%) @6.0x, remaining 31:50 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2654142464/43360860176 ( 6.1%) @6.1x, remaining 31:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2741927936/43360860176 ( 6.3%) @5.8x, remaining 31:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2834432000/43360860176 ( 6.5%) @6.1x, remaining 30:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2927493120/43360860176 ( 6.8%) @6.2x, remaining 30:36 RBU 99.9% UBU 100.0%

3021111296/43360860176 ( 7.0%) @6.2x, remaining 30:29 RBU 99.9% UBU 100.0%

3115253760/43360860176 ( 7.2%) @6.3x, remaining 30:08 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

3209920512/43360860176 ( 7.4%) @6.3x, remaining 29:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3305144320/43360860176 ( 7.6%) @6.3x, remaining 29:41 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3400892416/43360860176 ( 7.8%) @6.4x, remaining 29:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

3497197568/43360860176 ( 8.1%) @6.4x, remaining 29:04 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3594027008/43360860176 ( 8.3%) @6.4x, remaining 28:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

3691413504/43360860176 ( 8.5%) @6.5x, remaining 28:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3789324288/43360860176 ( 8.7%) @6.5x, remaining 28:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3887792128/43360860176 ( 9.0%) @6.5x, remaining 28:15 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3986817024/43360860176 ( 9.2%) @6.6x, remaining 27:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4081680384/43360860176 ( 9.4%) @6.3x, remaining 27:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4181753856/43360860176 ( 9.6%) @6.6x, remaining 27:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4282351616/43360860176 ( 9.9%) @6.7x, remaining 27:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4383473664/43360860176 (10.1%) @6.7x, remaining 27:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4485120000/43360860176 (10.3%) @6.7x, remaining 27:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4587356160/43360860176 (10.6%) @6.8x, remaining 26:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4690083840/43360860176 (10.8%) @6.8x, remaining 26:39 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

4793335808/43360860176 (11.1%) @6.9x, remaining 26:25 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4798480384/43360860176 (11.1%) @0.3x, remaining 26:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

4798480384/43360860176 (11.1%) @0.0x, remaining 27:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

4857397248/43360860176 (11.2%) @3.9x, remaining 27:20 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4961501184/43360860176 (11.4%) @6.9x, remaining 27:05 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5066227712/43360860176 (11.7%) @7.0x, remaining 26:57 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

5171445760/43360860176 (11.9%) @7.0x, remaining 26:42 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5277220864/43360860176 (12.2%) @7.0x, remaining 26:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5383520256/43360860176 (12.4%) @7.1x, remaining 26:20 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5485625344/43360860176 (12.7%) @6.8x, remaining 26:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5534711808/43360860176 (12.8%) @3.3x, remaining 26:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5642321920/43360860176 (13.0%) @7.1x, remaining 26:04 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5750456320/43360860176 (13.3%) @7.2x, remaining 25:50 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5859180544/43360860176 (13.5%) @7.2x, remaining 25:36 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

5968363520/43360860176 (13.8%) @7.3x, remaining 25:28 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6078136320/43360860176 (14.0%) @7.3x, remaining 25:15 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6188433408/43360860176 (14.3%) @7.3x, remaining 25:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6299320320/43360860176 (14.5%) @7.4x, remaining 24:54 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

6410698752/43360860176 (14.8%) @7.4x, remaining 24:41 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

6522601472/43360860176 (15.0%) @7.4x, remaining 24:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6635061248/43360860176 (15.3%) @7.5x, remaining 24:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6743228416/43360860176 (15.6%) @7.2x, remaining 24:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6856769536/43360860176 (15.8%) @7.5x, remaining 24:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6970834944/43360860176 (16.1%) @7.6x, remaining 23:50 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7085424640/43360860176 (16.3%) @7.6x, remaining 23:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7200571392/43360860176 (16.6%) @7.6x, remaining 23:31 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7316209664/43360860176 (16.9%) @7.7x, remaining 23:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7432437760/43360860176 (17.1%) @7.7x, remaining 23:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7549190144/43360860176 (17.4%) @7.8x, remaining 23:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7666466816/43360860176 (17.7%) @7.8x, remaining 22:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7784267776/43360860176 (18.0%) @7.8x, remaining 22:37 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7902691328/43360860176 (18.2%) @7.9x, remaining 22:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8021606400/43360860176 (18.5%) @7.9x, remaining 22:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8136130560/43360860176 (18.8%) @7.6x, remaining 22:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8256126976/43360860176 (19.0%) @8.0x, remaining 22:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8372551680/43360860176 (19.3%) @7.7x, remaining 21:52 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

8493072384/43360860176 (19.6%) @8.0x, remaining 21:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8613593088/43360860176 (19.9%) @8.0x, remaining 21:34 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

8734113792/43360860176 (20.1%) @8.0x, remaining 21:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8854601728/43360860176 (20.4%) @8.0x, remaining 21:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8975122432/43360860176 (20.7%) @8.0x, remaining 21:08 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9095643136/43360860176 (21.0%) @8.0x, remaining 20:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9216163840/43360860176 (21.3%) @8.0x, remaining 20:52 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9238446080/43360860176 (21.3%) @1.5x, remaining 20:59 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9358999552/43360860176 (21.6%) @8.0x, remaining 20:49 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

9474637824/43360860176 (21.9%) @7.7x, remaining 20:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9595191296/43360860176 (22.1%) @8.0x, remaining 20:35 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

9715679232/43360860176 (22.4%) @8.0x, remaining 20:25 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9836199936/43360860176 (22.7%) @8.0x, remaining 20:20 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9956687872/43360860176 (23.0%) @8.0x, remaining 20:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10077208576/43360860176 (23.2%) @8.0x, remaining 20:02 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

10197729280/43360860176 (23.5%) @8.0x, remaining 19:56 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10318249984/43360860176 (23.8%) @8.0x, remaining 19:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10438737920/43360860176 (24.1%) @8.0x, remaining 19:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10559193088/43360860176 (24.4%) @8.0x, remaining 19:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10679779328/43360860176 (24.6%) @8.0x, remaining 19:25 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10795679744/43360860176 (24.9%) @7.7x, remaining 19:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10916167680/43360860176 (25.2%) @8.0x, remaining 19:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11036688384/43360860176 (25.5%) @8.0x, remaining 19:05 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11157209088/43360860176 (25.7%) @8.0x, remaining 19:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11277729792/43360860176 (26.0%) @8.0x, remaining 18:52 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11398217728/43360860176 (26.3%) @8.0x, remaining 18:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11518738432/43360860176 (26.6%) @8.0x, remaining 18:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11639193600/43360860176 (26.8%) @8.0x, remaining 18:31 RBU 100.1% UBU 97.0%

11759747072/43360860176 (27.1%) @8.0x, remaining 18:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11880235008/43360860176 (27.4%) @8.0x, remaining 18:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12000755712/43360860176 (27.7%) @8.0x, remaining 18:12 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12116197376/43360860176 (27.9%) @7.7x, remaining 18:05 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12236718080/43360860176 (28.2%) @8.0x, remaining 18:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12357206016/43360860176 (28.5%) @8.0x, remaining 17:53 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12477726720/43360860176 (28.8%) @8.0x, remaining 17:46 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12598181888/43360860176 (29.1%) @8.0x, remaining 17:42 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12718768128/43360860176 (29.3%) @8.0x, remaining 17:35 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

12839223296/43360860176 (29.6%) @8.0x, remaining 17:28 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12959776768/43360860176 (29.9%) @8.0x, remaining 17:23 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

13080231936/43360860176 (30.2%) @8.0x, remaining 17:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13200785408/43360860176 (30.4%) @8.0x, remaining 17:12 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13321273344/43360860176 (30.7%) @8.0x, remaining 17:06 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13441794048/43360860176 (31.0%) @8.0x, remaining 16:59 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13557596160/43360860176 (31.3%) @7.7x, remaining 16:55 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13678116864/43360860176 (31.5%) @8.0x, remaining 16:49 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13798637568/43360860176 (31.8%) @8.0x, remaining 16:42 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13919125504/43360860176 (32.1%) @8.0x, remaining 16:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14039646208/43360860176 (32.4%) @8.0x, remaining 16:32 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14160134144/43360860176 (32.7%) @8.0x, remaining 16:25 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14280654848/43360860176 (32.9%) @8.0x, remaining 16:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14401142784/43360860176 (33.2%) @8.0x, remaining 16:15 RBU 100.1% UBU 97.0%

14521630720/43360860176 (33.5%) @8.0x, remaining 16:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14642151424/43360860176 (33.8%) @8.0x, remaining 16:04 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14762672128/43360860176 (34.0%) @8.0x, remaining 15:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14878310400/43360860176 (34.3%) @7.7x, remaining 15:53 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14998831104/43360860176 (34.6%) @8.0x, remaining 15:49 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

15119351808/43360860176 (34.9%) @8.0x, remaining 15:43 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

15239839744/43360860176 (35.1%) @8.0x, remaining 15:37 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

15360360448/43360860176 (35.4%) @8.0x, remaining 15:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

15480881152/43360860176 (35.7%) @8.0x, remaining 15:27 RBU 99.8% UBU 97.0%

15601369088/43360860176 (36.0%) @8.0x, remaining 15:23 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

15721857024/43360860176 (36.3%) @8.0x, remaining 15:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

15842377728/43360860176 (36.5%) @8.0x, remaining 15:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

15962865664/43360860176 (36.8%) @8.0x, remaining 15:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16083386368/43360860176 (37.1%) @8.0x, remaining 15:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16199155712/43360860176 (37.4%) @7.7x, remaining 14:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16319643648/43360860176 (37.6%) @8.0x, remaining 14:53 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16440164352/43360860176 (37.9%) @8.0x, remaining 14:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16560685056/43360860176 (38.2%) @8.0x, remaining 14:41 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16681172992/43360860176 (38.5%) @8.0x, remaining 14:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16801693696/43360860176 (38.7%) @8.0x, remaining 14:32 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

16922214400/43360860176 (39.0%) @8.0x, remaining 14:27 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

17042702336/43360860176 (39.3%) @8.0x, remaining 14:23 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17163190272/43360860176 (39.6%) @8.0x, remaining 14:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17283710976/43360860176 (39.9%) @8.0x, remaining 14:12 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17404231680/43360860176 (40.1%) @8.0x, remaining 14:08 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17520066560/43360860176 (40.4%) @7.7x, remaining 14:03 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17640652800/43360860176 (40.7%) @8.0x, remaining 13:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17761107968/43360860176 (41.0%) @8.0x, remaining 13:54 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17881628672/43360860176 (41.2%) @8.0x, remaining 13:49 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18002116608/43360860176 (41.5%) @8.0x, remaining 13:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18122670080/43360860176 (41.8%) @8.0x, remaining 13:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18243158016/43360860176 (42.1%) @8.0x, remaining 13:35 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18363678720/43360860176 (42.4%) @8.0x, remaining 13:31 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

18484133888/43360860176 (42.6%) @8.0x, remaining 13:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18604687360/43360860176 (42.9%) @8.0x, remaining 13:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18725208064/43360860176 (43.2%) @8.0x, remaining 13:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18840944640/43360860176 (43.5%) @7.7x, remaining 13:12 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18961432576/43360860176 (43.7%) @8.0x, remaining 13:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

19081953280/43360860176 (44.0%) @8.0x, remaining 13:03 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

19202473984/43360860176 (44.3%) @8.0x, remaining 12:58 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

19322961920/43360860176 (44.6%) @8.0x, remaining 12:53 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

19443417088/43360860176 (44.8%) @8.0x, remaining 12:50 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

19564003328/43360860176 (45.1%) @8.0x, remaining 12:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

19684458496/43360860176 (45.4%) @8.0x, remaining 12:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

19804979200/43360860176 (45.7%) @8.0x, remaining 12:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

19925467136/43360860176 (46.0%) @8.0x, remaining 12:31 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20045987840/43360860176 (46.2%) @8.0x, remaining 12:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20161953792/43360860176 (46.5%) @7.7x, remaining 12:23 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20282146816/43360860176 (46.8%) @8.0x, remaining 12:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20402601984/43360860176 (47.1%) @8.0x, remaining 12:14 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20523155456/43360860176 (47.3%) @8.0x, remaining 12:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20643643392/43360860176 (47.6%) @8.0x, remaining 12:05 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20764164096/43360860176 (47.9%) @8.0x, remaining 12:01 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20884652032/43360860176 (48.2%) @8.0x, remaining 11:56 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21005205504/43360860176 (48.4%) @8.0x, remaining 11:52 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21125660672/43360860176 (48.7%) @8.0x, remaining 11:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21246214144/43360860176 (49.0%) @8.0x, remaining 11:43 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21366702080/43360860176 (49.3%) @8.0x, remaining 11:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21487222784/43360860176 (49.6%) @8.0x, remaining 11:35 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21602729984/43360860176 (49.8%) @7.7x, remaining 11:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21723250688/43360860176 (50.1%) @8.0x, remaining 11:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21843738624/43360860176 (50.4%) @8.0x, remaining 11:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21964226560/43360860176 (50.7%) @8.0x, remaining 11:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22043820032/43360860176 (50.8%) @5.3x, remaining 11:15 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22164275200/43360860176 (51.1%) @8.0x, remaining 11:12 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22284795904/43360860176 (51.4%) @8.0x, remaining 11:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22405283840/43360860176 (51.7%) @8.0x, remaining 11:03 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22525804544/43360860176 (51.9%) @8.0x, remaining 10:59 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22646325248/43360860176 (52.2%) @8.0x, remaining 10:54 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22766845952/43360860176 (52.5%) @8.0x, remaining 10:51 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

22882516992/43360860176 (52.8%) @7.7x, remaining 10:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23003004928/43360860176 (53.1%) @8.0x, remaining 10:42 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23123525632/43360860176 (53.3%) @8.0x, remaining 10:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23244013568/43360860176 (53.6%) @8.0x, remaining 10:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23364567040/43360860176 (53.9%) @8.0x, remaining 10:29 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

23485054976/43360860176 (54.2%) @8.0x, remaining 10:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23605542912/43360860176 (54.4%) @8.0x, remaining 10:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23726063616/43360860176 (54.7%) @8.0x, remaining 10:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23846584320/43360860176 (55.0%) @8.0x, remaining 10:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23967105024/43360860176 (55.3%) @8.0x, remaining 10:09 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

24087592960/43360860176 (55.6%) @8.0x, remaining 10:04 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24202838016/43360860176 (55.8%) @7.7x, remaining 10:01 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24323293184/43360860176 (56.1%) @8.0x, remaining 9:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24443846656/43360860176 (56.4%) @8.0x, remaining 9:52 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24564334592/43360860176 (56.7%) @8.0x, remaining 9:49 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24684888064/43360860176 (56.9%) @8.0x, remaining 9:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24805343232/43360860176 (57.2%) @8.0x, remaining 9:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24925896704/43360860176 (57.5%) @8.0x, remaining 9:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

25027477504/43360860176 (57.7%) @6.7x, remaining 9:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 3.0%

25027477504/43360860176 (57.7%) @0.0x, remaining 9:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

25027477504/43360860176 (57.7%) @0.0x, remaining 9:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

25027477504/43360860176 (57.7%) @0.0x, remaining 9:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

25084231680/43360860176 (57.8%) @3.8x, remaining 9:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

25200361472/43360860176 (58.1%) @7.7x, remaining 9:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

25320849408/43360860176 (58.4%) @8.0x, remaining 9:32 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

25441370112/43360860176 (58.7%) @8.0x, remaining 9:28 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

25561858048/43360860176 (59.0%) @8.0x, remaining 9:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

25682345984/43360860176 (59.2%) @8.0x, remaining 9:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

25802866688/43360860176 (59.5%) @8.0x, remaining 9:15 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

25923354624/43360860176 (59.8%) @8.0x, remaining 9:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

26043875328/43360860176 (60.1%) @8.0x, remaining 9:07 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

26164363264/43360860176 (60.3%) @8.0x, remaining 9:03 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

26284883968/43360860176 (60.6%) @8.0x, remaining 8:59 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

26400227328/43360860176 (60.9%) @7.7x, remaining 8:55 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

26520682496/43360860176 (61.2%) @8.0x, remaining 8:51 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

26641203200/43360860176 (61.4%) @8.0x, remaining 8:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

26761691136/43360860176 (61.7%) @8.0x, remaining 8:42 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

26882244608/43360860176 (62.0%) @8.0x, remaining 8:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27002699776/43360860176 (62.3%) @8.0x, remaining 8:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27123220480/43360860176 (62.6%) @8.0x, remaining 8:31 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27243741184/43360860176 (62.8%) @8.0x, remaining 8:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27364229120/43360860176 (63.1%) @8.0x, remaining 8:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27484717056/43360860176 (63.4%) @8.0x, remaining 8:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27605270528/43360860176 (63.7%) @8.0x, remaining 8:14 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27723366400/43360860176 (63.9%) @7.8x, remaining 8:10 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27841167360/43360860176 (64.2%) @7.8x, remaining 8:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27961688064/43360860176 (64.5%) @8.0x, remaining 8:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28015788032/43360860176 (64.6%) @3.6x, remaining 8:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28090368000/43360860176 (64.8%) @5.0x, remaining 8:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28210855936/43360860176 (65.1%) @8.0x, remaining 7:56 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28331376640/43360860176 (65.3%) @8.0x, remaining 7:52 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28451897344/43360860176 (65.6%) @8.0x, remaining 7:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28572352512/43360860176 (65.9%) @8.0x, remaining 7:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28692905984/43360860176 (66.2%) @8.0x, remaining 7:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28813426688/43360860176 (66.5%) @8.0x, remaining 7:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28933947392/43360860176 (66.7%) @8.0x, remaining 7:32 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29054435328/43360860176 (67.0%) @8.0x, remaining 7:28 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29169942528/43360860176 (67.3%) @7.7x, remaining 7:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29290463232/43360860176 (67.6%) @8.0x, remaining 7:20 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29410951168/43360860176 (67.8%) @8.0x, remaining 7:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29531471872/43360860176 (68.1%) @8.0x, remaining 7:12 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29651992576/43360860176 (68.4%) @8.0x, remaining 7:08 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29772513280/43360860176 (68.7%) @8.0x, remaining 7:04 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29893001216/43360860176 (68.9%) @8.0x, remaining 7:00 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

30013521920/43360860176 (69.2%) @8.0x, remaining 6:56 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

30133977088/43360860176 (69.5%) @8.0x, remaining 6:53 RBU 100.1% UBU 97.0%

30254530560/43360860176 (69.8%) @8.0x, remaining 6:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

30375018496/43360860176 (70.1%) @8.0x, remaining 6:44 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

30490722304/43360860176 (70.3%) @7.7x, remaining 6:41 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

30611243008/43360860176 (70.6%) @8.0x, remaining 6:37 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

30731698176/43360860176 (70.9%) @8.0x, remaining 6:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

30852251648/43360860176 (71.2%) @8.0x, remaining 6:29 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

30972739584/43360860176 (71.4%) @8.0x, remaining 6:25 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31093227520/43360860176 (71.7%) @8.0x, remaining 6:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31213748224/43360860176 (72.0%) @8.0x, remaining 6:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31334236160/43360860176 (72.3%) @8.0x, remaining 6:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31454789632/43360860176 (72.5%) @8.0x, remaining 6:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31575244800/43360860176 (72.8%) @8.0x, remaining 6:06 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31695732736/43360860176 (73.1%) @8.0x, remaining 6:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31811600384/43360860176 (73.4%) @7.7x, remaining 5:58 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

31932121088/43360860176 (73.6%) @8.0x, remaining 5:54 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

32052576256/43360860176 (73.9%) @8.0x, remaining 5:50 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32173064192/43360860176 (74.2%) @8.0x, remaining 5:47 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

32293617664/43360860176 (74.5%) @8.0x, remaining 5:43 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32414105600/43360860176 (74.8%) @8.0x, remaining 5:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32534593536/43360860176 (75.0%) @8.0x, remaining 5:35 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32655114240/43360860176 (75.3%) @8.0x, remaining 5:31 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32775634944/43360860176 (75.6%) @8.0x, remaining 5:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32896155648/43360860176 (75.9%) @8.0x, remaining 5:23 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33016610816/43360860176 (76.1%) @8.0x, remaining 5:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33132576768/43360860176 (76.4%) @7.7x, remaining 5:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33253130240/43360860176 (76.7%) @8.0x, remaining 5:12 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33373618176/43360860176 (77.0%) @8.0x, remaining 5:08 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33494106112/43360860176 (77.2%) @8.0x, remaining 5:04 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

33614626816/43360860176 (77.5%) @8.0x, remaining 5:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33735114752/43360860176 (77.8%) @8.0x, remaining 4:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33855602688/43360860176 (78.1%) @8.0x, remaining 4:53 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33976090624/43360860176 (78.4%) @8.0x, remaining 4:49 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

34096644096/43360860176 (78.6%) @8.0x, remaining 4:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

34217132032/43360860176 (78.9%) @8.0x, remaining 4:41 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

34337685504/43360860176 (79.2%) @8.0x, remaining 4:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

34453454848/43360860176 (79.5%) @7.7x, remaining 4:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

34573975552/43360860176 (79.7%) @8.0x, remaining 4:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

34694496256/43360860176 (80.0%) @8.0x, remaining 4:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

34815016960/43360860176 (80.3%) @8.0x, remaining 4:22 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

34935472128/43360860176 (80.6%) @8.0x, remaining 4:19 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

35055960064/43360860176 (80.8%) @8.0x, remaining 4:15 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35176513536/43360860176 (81.1%) @8.0x, remaining 4:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35297001472/43360860176 (81.4%) @8.0x, remaining 4:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35417522176/43360860176 (81.7%) @8.0x, remaining 4:04 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35537977344/43360860176 (82.0%) @8.0x, remaining 4:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35658530816/43360860176 (82.2%) @8.0x, remaining 3:56 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35779018752/43360860176 (82.5%) @8.0x, remaining 3:52 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35894755328/43360860176 (82.8%) @7.7x, remaining 3:49 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36015276032/43360860176 (83.1%) @8.0x, remaining 3:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36135763968/43360860176 (83.3%) @8.0x, remaining 3:41 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36256251904/43360860176 (83.6%) @8.0x, remaining 3:37 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36376805376/43360860176 (83.9%) @8.0x, remaining 3:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36497293312/43360860176 (84.2%) @8.0x, remaining 3:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36617814016/43360860176 (84.4%) @8.0x, remaining 3:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36738301952/43360860176 (84.7%) @8.0x, remaining 3:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36858789888/43360860176 (85.0%) @8.0x, remaining 3:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36979343360/43360860176 (85.3%) @8.0x, remaining 3:15 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

37099831296/43360860176 (85.6%) @8.0x, remaining 3:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37215666176/43360860176 (85.8%) @7.7x, remaining 3:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37336219648/43360860176 (86.1%) @8.0x, remaining 3:04 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37456674816/43360860176 (86.4%) @8.0x, remaining 3:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37577228288/43360860176 (86.7%) @8.0x, remaining 2:56 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37697683456/43360860176 (86.9%) @8.0x, remaining 2:53 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37818236928/43360860176 (87.2%) @8.0x, remaining 2:49 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37938692096/43360860176 (87.5%) @8.0x, remaining 2:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

38059245568/43360860176 (87.8%) @8.0x, remaining 2:41 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

38179733504/43360860176 (88.1%) @8.0x, remaining 2:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

38300254208/43360860176 (88.3%) @8.0x, remaining 2:34 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

38420742144/43360860176 (88.6%) @8.0x, remaining 2:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

38536085504/43360860176 (88.9%) @7.7x, remaining 2:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

38656573440/43360860176 (89.2%) @8.0x, remaining 2:23 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

38777061376/43360860176 (89.4%) @8.0x, remaining 2:19 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

38897582080/43360860176 (89.7%) @8.0x, remaining 2:15 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39018102784/43360860176 (90.0%) @8.0x, remaining 2:12 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39138623488/43360860176 (90.3%) @8.0x, remaining 2:08 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

39259111424/43360860176 (90.5%) @8.0x, remaining 2:04 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39379632128/43360860176 (90.8%) @8.0x, remaining 2:01 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39500120064/43360860176 (91.1%) @8.0x, remaining 1:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39620640768/43360860176 (91.4%) @8.0x, remaining 1:53 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39741128704/43360860176 (91.7%) @8.0x, remaining 1:50 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

39856898048/43360860176 (91.9%) @7.7x, remaining 1:46 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39977385984/43360860176 (92.2%) @8.0x, remaining 1:42 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40097906688/43360860176 (92.5%) @8.0x, remaining 1:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40218427392/43360860176 (92.8%) @8.0x, remaining 1:35 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40338980864/43360860176 (93.0%) @8.0x, remaining 1:31 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40459468800/43360860176 (93.3%) @8.0x, remaining 1:28 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40579923968/43360860176 (93.6%) @8.0x, remaining 1:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40700477440/43360860176 (93.9%) @8.0x, remaining 1:20 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40820998144/43360860176 (94.1%) @8.0x, remaining 1:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40941486080/43360860176 (94.4%) @8.0x, remaining 1:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41062006784/43360860176 (94.7%) @8.0x, remaining 1:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41177776128/43360860176 (95.0%) @7.7x, remaining 1:06 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41298296832/43360860176 (95.2%) @8.0x, remaining 1:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41418784768/43360860176 (95.5%) @8.0x, remaining 0:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41539305472/43360860176 (95.8%) @8.0x, remaining 0:55 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41659826176/43360860176 (96.1%) @8.0x, remaining 0:51 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41776316416/43360860176 (96.3%) @7.7x, remaining 0:48 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

41896345600/43360860176 (96.6%) @8.0x, remaining 0:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

42015850496/43360860176 (96.9%) @7.9x, remaining 0:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

42134798336/43360860176 (97.2%) @7.9x, remaining 0:37 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

42253221888/43360860176 (97.4%) @7.9x, remaining 0:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

42371121152/43360860176 (97.7%) @7.8x, remaining 0:29 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

42488496128/43360860176 (98.0%) @7.8x, remaining 0:26 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

42600529920/43360860176 (98.2%) @7.4x, remaining 0:23 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

42716856320/43360860176 (98.5%) @7.7x, remaining 0:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

42832592896/43360860176 (98.8%) @7.7x, remaining 0:15 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

42947837952/43360860176 (99.0%) @7.7x, remaining 0:12 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

43062493184/43360860176 (99.3%) @7.6x, remaining 0:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

43176624128/43360860176 (99.6%) @7.6x, remaining 0:05 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

43290230784/43360860176 (99.8%) @7.5x, remaining 0:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

/dev/rcd0c: flushing cache

/dev/rcd0c: closing track

/dev/rcd0c: closing session

/dev/rcd0c: reloading tray

Secondly, recording to an Acu-Disc BD-R DL:

Executing 'builtin_dd if=image.enc of=/dev/rcd0c obs=32k seek=0'

/dev/rcd0c: "Current Write Speed" is 8.2x4390KBps.

2162688/43360860176 ( 0.0%) @0.0x, remaining 2004:51 RBU 100.0% UBU 3.0%

2162688/43360860176 ( 0.0%) @0.0x, remaining 3341:25 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

12255232/43360860176 ( 0.0%) @0.7x, remaining 766:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

54984704/43360860176 ( 0.1%) @2.8x, remaining 210:01 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

130252800/43360860176 ( 0.3%) @5.0x, remaining 110:37 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

206012416/43360860176 ( 0.5%) @5.0x, remaining 80:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

282329088/43360860176 ( 0.7%) @5.1x, remaining 66:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

359202816/43360860176 ( 0.8%) @5.1x, remaining 59:51 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

436600832/43360860176 ( 1.0%) @5.1x, remaining 54:04 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

514555904/43360860176 ( 1.2%) @5.2x, remaining 49:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

593035264/43360860176 ( 1.4%) @5.2x, remaining 48:04 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

672038912/43360860176 ( 1.5%) @5.2x, remaining 45:31 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

751599616/43360860176 ( 1.7%) @5.3x, remaining 44:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

831717376/43360860176 ( 1.9%) @5.3x, remaining 42:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

912359424/43360860176 ( 2.1%) @5.4x, remaining 41:05 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

993525760/43360860176 ( 2.3%) @5.4x, remaining 40:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1075216384/43360860176 ( 2.5%) @5.4x, remaining 39:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1132986368/43360860176 ( 2.6%) @3.8x, remaining 39:08 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1199636480/43360860176 ( 2.8%) @4.4x, remaining 39:14 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1262190592/43360860176 ( 2.9%) @4.2x, remaining 38:54 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1345683456/43360860176 ( 3.1%) @5.5x, remaining 37:59 RBU 99.9% UBU 100.0%

1425637376/43360860176 ( 3.3%) @5.3x, remaining 37:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1510146048/43360860176 ( 3.5%) @5.6x, remaining 36:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1595211776/43360860176 ( 3.7%) @5.6x, remaining 36:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1680834560/43360860176 ( 3.9%) @5.7x, remaining 35:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1766948864/43360860176 ( 4.1%) @5.7x, remaining 35:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1853652992/43360860176 ( 4.3%) @5.8x, remaining 34:42 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

1940848640/43360860176 ( 4.5%) @5.8x, remaining 34:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2028634112/43360860176 ( 4.7%) @5.8x, remaining 33:57 RBU 99.9% UBU 100.0%

2116911104/43360860176 ( 4.9%) @5.9x, remaining 33:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2205777920/43360860176 ( 5.1%) @5.9x, remaining 33:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2295136256/43360860176 ( 5.3%) @5.9x, remaining 32:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2385051648/43360860176 ( 5.5%) @6.0x, remaining 32:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2475491328/43360860176 ( 5.7%) @6.0x, remaining 32:12 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

2566520832/43360860176 ( 5.9%) @6.0x, remaining 31:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2658009088/43360860176 ( 6.1%) @6.1x, remaining 31:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2745827328/43360860176 ( 6.3%) @5.8x, remaining 31:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

2838396928/43360860176 ( 6.5%) @6.1x, remaining 30:55 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

2931556352/43360860176 ( 6.8%) @6.2x, remaining 30:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3025207296/43360860176 ( 7.0%) @6.2x, remaining 30:26 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

3119415296/43360860176 ( 7.2%) @6.3x, remaining 30:06 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3214147584/43360860176 ( 7.4%) @6.3x, remaining 29:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3309436928/43360860176 ( 7.6%) @6.3x, remaining 29:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3405283328/43360860176 ( 7.9%) @6.4x, remaining 29:20 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

3501654016/43360860176 ( 8.1%) @6.4x, remaining 29:12 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3598516224/43360860176 ( 8.3%) @6.4x, remaining 28:54 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3695968256/43360860176 ( 8.5%) @6.5x, remaining 28:37 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

3793911808/43360860176 ( 8.7%) @6.5x, remaining 28:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

3892412416/43360860176 ( 9.0%) @6.5x, remaining 28:13 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

3991502848/43360860176 ( 9.2%) @6.6x, remaining 27:56 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

4086464512/43360860176 ( 9.4%) @6.3x, remaining 27:52 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4186603520/43360860176 ( 9.7%) @6.6x, remaining 27:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4287266816/43360860176 ( 9.9%) @6.7x, remaining 27:29 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

4388421632/43360860176 (10.1%) @6.7x, remaining 27:14 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4490133504/43360860176 (10.4%) @6.8x, remaining 26:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4592402432/43360860176 (10.6%) @6.8x, remaining 26:52 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4695228416/43360860176 (10.8%) @6.8x, remaining 26:37 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4798545920/43360860176 (11.1%) @6.9x, remaining 26:23 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

4902453248/43360860176 (11.3%) @6.9x, remaining 26:16 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

5006852096/43360860176 (11.5%) @6.9x, remaining 26:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5111840768/43360860176 (11.8%) @7.0x, remaining 25:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5217320960/43360860176 (12.0%) @7.0x, remaining 25:42 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5323358208/43360860176 (12.3%) @7.0x, remaining 25:29 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5425201152/43360860176 (12.5%) @6.8x, remaining 25:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5532286976/43360860176 (12.8%) @7.1x, remaining 25:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5639929856/43360860176 (13.0%) @7.1x, remaining 24:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5748097024/43360860176 (13.3%) @7.2x, remaining 24:45 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

5853413376/43360860176 (13.5%) @7.0x, remaining 24:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

5962629120/43360860176 (13.8%) @7.3x, remaining 24:27 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

6072401920/43360860176 (14.0%) @7.3x, remaining 24:15 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6112673792/43360860176 (14.1%) @2.7x, remaining 24:28 RBU 100.0% UBU 30.3%

6112673792/43360860176 (14.1%) @0.0x, remaining 24:46 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

6150979584/43360860176 (14.2%) @2.5x, remaining 25:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6261702656/43360860176 (14.4%) @7.4x, remaining 24:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6372950016/43360860176 (14.7%) @7.4x, remaining 24:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6484688896/43360860176 (15.0%) @7.4x, remaining 24:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6597017600/43360860176 (15.2%) @7.5x, remaining 24:14 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6709903360/43360860176 (15.5%) @7.5x, remaining 24:02 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

6813384704/43360860176 (15.7%) @6.9x, remaining 23:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

6927253504/43360860176 (16.0%) @7.6x, remaining 23:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7041712128/43360860176 (16.2%) @7.6x, remaining 23:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7095386112/43360860176 (16.4%) @3.6x, remaining 23:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7210598400/43360860176 (16.6%) @7.7x, remaining 23:28 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7326367744/43360860176 (16.9%) @7.7x, remaining 23:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7442661376/43360860176 (17.2%) @7.7x, remaining 23:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7559512064/43360860176 (17.4%) @7.8x, remaining 22:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7676854272/43360860176 (17.7%) @7.8x, remaining 22:46 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

7794753536/43360860176 (18.0%) @7.8x, remaining 22:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

7913209856/43360860176 (18.2%) @7.9x, remaining 22:28 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8032124928/43360860176 (18.5%) @7.9x, remaining 22:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8146386944/43360860176 (18.8%) @7.6x, remaining 22:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8266416128/43360860176 (19.1%) @8.0x, remaining 22:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8382939136/43360860176 (19.3%) @7.7x, remaining 21:54 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8503427072/43360860176 (19.6%) @8.0x, remaining 21:43 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8623947776/43360860176 (19.9%) @8.0x, remaining 21:32 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

8744468480/43360860176 (20.2%) @8.0x, remaining 21:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8864989184/43360860176 (20.4%) @8.0x, remaining 21:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

8985509888/43360860176 (20.7%) @8.0x, remaining 21:06 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9105997824/43360860176 (21.0%) @8.0x, remaining 21:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9196601344/43360860176 (21.2%) @6.0x, remaining 20:55 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9249423360/43360860176 (21.3%) @3.5x, remaining 20:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9369944064/43360860176 (21.6%) @8.0x, remaining 20:51 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

9485352960/43360860176 (21.9%) @7.7x, remaining 20:42 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

9605873664/43360860176 (22.2%) @8.0x, remaining 20:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9726394368/43360860176 (22.4%) @8.0x, remaining 20:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9846915072/43360860176 (22.7%) @8.0x, remaining 20:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

9967403008/43360860176 (23.0%) @8.0x, remaining 20:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10087956480/43360860176 (23.3%) @8.0x, remaining 20:03 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10208444416/43360860176 (23.5%) @8.0x, remaining 19:55 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10328965120/43360860176 (23.8%) @8.0x, remaining 19:46 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

10449485824/43360860176 (24.1%) @8.0x, remaining 19:41 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10569973760/43360860176 (24.4%) @8.0x, remaining 19:32 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10690461696/43360860176 (24.7%) @8.0x, remaining 19:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10806427648/43360860176 (24.9%) @7.7x, remaining 19:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

10926915584/43360860176 (25.2%) @8.0x, remaining 19:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11047436288/43360860176 (25.5%) @8.0x, remaining 19:06 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11167924224/43360860176 (25.8%) @8.0x, remaining 18:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11288477696/43360860176 (26.0%) @8.0x, remaining 18:50 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11408932864/43360860176 (26.3%) @8.0x, remaining 18:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11529486336/43360860176 (26.6%) @8.0x, remaining 18:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11649941504/43360860176 (26.9%) @8.0x, remaining 18:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

11770494976/43360860176 (27.1%) @8.0x, remaining 18:25 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

11890982912/43360860176 (27.4%) @8.0x, remaining 18:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12011470848/43360860176 (27.7%) @8.0x, remaining 18:10 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12127469568/43360860176 (28.0%) @7.7x, remaining 18:06 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

12247957504/43360860176 (28.2%) @8.0x, remaining 17:59 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12368478208/43360860176 (28.5%) @8.0x, remaining 17:52 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12488966144/43360860176 (28.8%) @8.0x, remaining 17:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12609519616/43360860176 (29.1%) @8.0x, remaining 17:40 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

12730007552/43360860176 (29.4%) @8.0x, remaining 17:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12850561024/43360860176 (29.6%) @8.0x, remaining 17:29 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

12971016192/43360860176 (29.9%) @8.0x, remaining 17:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13091536896/43360860176 (30.2%) @8.0x, remaining 17:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13212024832/43360860176 (30.5%) @8.0x, remaining 17:11 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

13332545536/43360860176 (30.7%) @8.0x, remaining 17:04 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13452312576/43360860176 (31.0%) @8.0x, remaining 17:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13568901120/43360860176 (31.3%) @7.7x, remaining 16:54 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13689389056/43360860176 (31.6%) @8.0x, remaining 16:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13809909760/43360860176 (31.8%) @8.0x, remaining 16:43 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

13930430464/43360860176 (32.1%) @8.0x, remaining 16:37 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14050918400/43360860176 (32.4%) @8.0x, remaining 16:30 RBU 100.1% UBU 97.0%

14171439104/43360860176 (32.7%) @8.0x, remaining 16:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14291959808/43360860176 (33.0%) @8.0x, remaining 16:20 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14412480512/43360860176 (33.2%) @8.0x, remaining 16:14 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14533001216/43360860176 (33.5%) @8.0x, remaining 16:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14653489152/43360860176 (33.8%) @8.0x, remaining 16:03 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

14774009856/43360860176 (34.1%) @8.0x, remaining 15:57 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

14889877504/43360860176 (34.3%) @7.7x, remaining 15:54 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

15010398208/43360860176 (34.6%) @8.0x, remaining 15:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

15130918912/43360860176 (34.9%) @8.0x, remaining 15:42 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

15251439616/43360860176 (35.2%) @8.0x, remaining 15:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

15371927552/43360860176 (35.5%) @8.0x, remaining 15:32 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

15492382720/43360860176 (35.7%) @8.0x, remaining 15:28 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

15612936192/43360860176 (36.0%) @8.0x, remaining 15:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

15733424128/43360860176 (36.3%) @8.0x, remaining 15:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

15853977600/43360860176 (36.6%) @8.0x, remaining 15:12 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

15974465536/43360860176 (36.8%) @8.0x, remaining 15:06 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16095019008/43360860176 (37.1%) @8.0x, remaining 15:01 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16210755584/43360860176 (37.4%) @7.7x, remaining 14:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16331276288/43360860176 (37.7%) @8.0x, remaining 14:52 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16451764224/43360860176 (37.9%) @8.0x, remaining 14:46 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16572284928/43360860176 (38.2%) @8.0x, remaining 14:42 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16692805632/43360860176 (38.5%) @8.0x, remaining 14:37 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

16813293568/43360860176 (38.8%) @8.0x, remaining 14:31 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

16933814272/43360860176 (39.1%) @8.0x, remaining 14:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17054302208/43360860176 (39.3%) @8.0x, remaining 14:22 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

17174822912/43360860176 (39.6%) @8.0x, remaining 14:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17295310848/43360860176 (39.9%) @8.0x, remaining 14:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17415831552/43360860176 (40.2%) @8.0x, remaining 14:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17531699200/43360860176 (40.4%) @7.7x, remaining 14:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17652219904/43360860176 (40.7%) @8.0x, remaining 13:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17772773376/43360860176 (41.0%) @8.0x, remaining 13:53 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

17893261312/43360860176 (41.3%) @8.0x, remaining 13:49 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

18013782016/43360860176 (41.5%) @8.0x, remaining 13:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18134269952/43360860176 (41.8%) @8.0x, remaining 13:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18254790656/43360860176 (42.1%) @8.0x, remaining 13:35 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18375245824/43360860176 (42.4%) @8.0x, remaining 13:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18495799296/43360860176 (42.7%) @8.0x, remaining 13:25 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18616287232/43360860176 (42.9%) @8.0x, remaining 13:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18736840704/43360860176 (43.2%) @8.0x, remaining 13:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

18852577280/43360860176 (43.5%) @7.7x, remaining 13:11 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

18973032448/43360860176 (43.8%) @8.0x, remaining 13:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

19093553152/43360860176 (44.0%) @8.0x, remaining 13:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

19214073856/43360860176 (44.3%) @8.0x, remaining 12:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

19334627328/43360860176 (44.6%) @8.0x, remaining 12:54 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

19455115264/43360860176 (44.9%) @8.0x, remaining 12:49 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

19575603200/43360860176 (45.1%) @8.0x, remaining 12:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

19696123904/43360860176 (45.4%) @8.0x, remaining 12:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

19816611840/43360860176 (45.7%) @8.0x, remaining 12:35 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

19937132544/43360860176 (46.0%) @8.0x, remaining 12:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20057653248/43360860176 (46.3%) @8.0x, remaining 12:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20173258752/43360860176 (46.5%) @7.7x, remaining 12:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20293779456/43360860176 (46.8%) @8.0x, remaining 12:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20414267392/43360860176 (47.1%) @8.0x, remaining 12:14 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20534820864/43360860176 (47.4%) @8.0x, remaining 12:09 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

20655276032/43360860176 (47.6%) @8.0x, remaining 12:05 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20775829504/43360860176 (47.9%) @8.0x, remaining 12:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

20896284672/43360860176 (48.2%) @8.0x, remaining 11:55 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21016838144/43360860176 (48.5%) @8.0x, remaining 11:52 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21137326080/43360860176 (48.7%) @8.0x, remaining 11:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21257846784/43360860176 (49.0%) @8.0x, remaining 11:42 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21378367488/43360860176 (49.3%) @8.0x, remaining 11:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21498888192/43360860176 (49.6%) @8.0x, remaining 11:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21614395392/43360860176 (49.8%) @7.7x, remaining 11:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21734850560/43360860176 (50.1%) @8.0x, remaining 11:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21855404032/43360860176 (50.4%) @8.0x, remaining 11:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

21975891968/43360860176 (50.7%) @8.0x, remaining 11:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22053715968/43360860176 (50.9%) @5.2x, remaining 11:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22174269440/43360860176 (51.1%) @8.0x, remaining 11:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22294790144/43360860176 (51.4%) @8.0x, remaining 11:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22415278080/43360860176 (51.7%) @8.0x, remaining 11:03 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22535766016/43360860176 (52.0%) @8.0x, remaining 10:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22656319488/43360860176 (52.3%) @8.0x, remaining 10:55 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22776807424/43360860176 (52.5%) @8.0x, remaining 10:50 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

22892150784/43360860176 (52.8%) @7.7x, remaining 10:46 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23012704256/43360860176 (53.1%) @8.0x, remaining 10:42 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

23133192192/43360860176 (53.4%) @8.0x, remaining 10:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23253712896/43360860176 (53.6%) @8.0x, remaining 10:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23374233600/43360860176 (53.9%) @8.0x, remaining 10:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23494721536/43360860176 (54.2%) @8.0x, remaining 10:25 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23615209472/43360860176 (54.5%) @8.0x, remaining 10:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23735730176/43360860176 (54.7%) @8.0x, remaining 10:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23856218112/43360860176 (55.0%) @8.0x, remaining 10:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

23976738816/43360860176 (55.3%) @8.0x, remaining 10:08 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24097259520/43360860176 (55.6%) @8.0x, remaining 10:05 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24212504576/43360860176 (55.8%) @7.7x, remaining 10:01 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24332992512/43360860176 (56.1%) @8.0x, remaining 9:56 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24453545984/43360860176 (56.4%) @8.0x, remaining 9:53 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24574001152/43360860176 (56.7%) @8.0x, remaining 9:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24694587392/43360860176 (57.0%) @8.0x, remaining 9:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24815009792/43360860176 (57.2%) @8.0x, remaining 9:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

24935596032/43360860176 (57.5%) @8.0x, remaining 9:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

25027477504/43360860176 (57.7%) @6.1x, remaining 9:34 RBU 100.0% UBU 3.0%

25027477504/43360860176 (57.7%) @0.0x, remaining 9:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

25027477504/43360860176 (57.7%) @0.0x, remaining 9:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

25027477504/43360860176 (57.7%) @0.0x, remaining 9:41 RBU 100.0% UBU 100.0%

25119031296/43360860176 (57.9%) @6.1x, remaining 9:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

25196232704/43360860176 (58.1%) @5.1x, remaining 9:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

25316720640/43360860176 (58.4%) @8.0x, remaining 9:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

25437241344/43360860176 (58.7%) @8.0x, remaining 9:28 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

25557762048/43360860176 (58.9%) @8.0x, remaining 9:24 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

25678217216/43360860176 (59.2%) @8.0x, remaining 9:20 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

25798770688/43360860176 (59.5%) @8.0x, remaining 9:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

25919258624/43360860176 (59.8%) @8.0x, remaining 9:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

26039746560/43360860176 (60.1%) @8.0x, remaining 9:08 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

26160267264/43360860176 (60.3%) @8.0x, remaining 9:03 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

26280787968/43360860176 (60.6%) @8.0x, remaining 8:59 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

26391871488/43360860176 (60.9%) @7.4x, remaining 8:56 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

26512359424/43360860176 (61.1%) @8.0x, remaining 8:51 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

26632880128/43360860176 (61.4%) @8.0x, remaining 8:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

26753368064/43360860176 (61.7%) @8.0x, remaining 8:43 RBU 100.1% UBU 97.0%

26873888768/43360860176 (62.0%) @8.0x, remaining 8:39 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

26994409472/43360860176 (62.3%) @8.0x, remaining 8:35 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27114897408/43360860176 (62.5%) @8.0x, remaining 8:31 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27235418112/43360860176 (62.8%) @8.0x, remaining 8:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27355938816/43360860176 (63.1%) @8.0x, remaining 8:23 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

27476426752/43360860176 (63.4%) @8.0x, remaining 8:19 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

27596914688/43360860176 (63.6%) @8.0x, remaining 8:15 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27717468160/43360860176 (63.9%) @8.0x, remaining 8:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27823013888/43360860176 (64.2%) @7.0x, remaining 8:08 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

27943567360/43360860176 (64.4%) @8.0x, remaining 8:03 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28041281536/43360860176 (64.7%) @6.5x, remaining 8:01 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28069724160/43360860176 (64.7%) @1.9x, remaining 8:01 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28190212096/43360860176 (65.0%) @8.0x, remaining 7:57 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28310700032/43360860176 (65.3%) @8.0x, remaining 7:53 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28431253504/43360860176 (65.6%) @8.0x, remaining 7:49 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28551708672/43360860176 (65.8%) @8.0x, remaining 7:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28672262144/43360860176 (66.1%) @8.0x, remaining 7:41 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

28792750080/43360860176 (66.4%) @8.0x, remaining 7:37 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

28913303552/43360860176 (66.7%) @8.0x, remaining 7:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29033791488/43360860176 (67.0%) @8.0x, remaining 7:29 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29144416256/43360860176 (67.2%) @7.3x, remaining 7:25 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29264904192/43360860176 (67.5%) @8.0x, remaining 7:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29385392128/43360860176 (67.8%) @8.0x, remaining 7:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29505912832/43360860176 (68.0%) @8.0x, remaining 7:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29626400768/43360860176 (68.3%) @8.0x, remaining 7:10 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29746954240/43360860176 (68.6%) @8.0x, remaining 7:06 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

29867442176/43360860176 (68.9%) @8.0x, remaining 7:01 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

29987930112/43360860176 (69.2%) @8.0x, remaining 6:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

30108418048/43360860176 (69.4%) @8.0x, remaining 6:54 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

30228971520/43360860176 (69.7%) @8.0x, remaining 6:50 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

30349459456/43360860176 (70.0%) @8.0x, remaining 6:46 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

30460346368/43360860176 (70.2%) @7.4x, remaining 6:42 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

30580834304/43360860176 (70.5%) @8.0x, remaining 6:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

30701355008/43360860176 (70.8%) @8.0x, remaining 6:35 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

30821842944/43360860176 (71.1%) @8.0x, remaining 6:30 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

30942396416/43360860176 (71.4%) @8.0x, remaining 6:26 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31062884352/43360860176 (71.6%) @8.0x, remaining 6:23 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31183372288/43360860176 (71.9%) @8.0x, remaining 6:19 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31303892992/43360860176 (72.2%) @8.0x, remaining 6:15 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31424413696/43360860176 (72.5%) @8.0x, remaining 6:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31544901632/43360860176 (72.7%) @8.0x, remaining 6:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31665389568/43360860176 (73.0%) @8.0x, remaining 6:03 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31782338560/43360860176 (73.3%) @7.8x, remaining 5:59 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

31887654912/43360860176 (73.5%) @7.0x, remaining 5:56 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32008175616/43360860176 (73.8%) @8.0x, remaining 5:52 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32128663552/43360860176 (74.1%) @8.0x, remaining 5:48 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32249217024/43360860176 (74.4%) @8.0x, remaining 5:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32369704960/43360860176 (74.7%) @8.0x, remaining 5:41 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32490225664/43360860176 (74.9%) @8.0x, remaining 5:37 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32610713600/43360860176 (75.2%) @8.0x, remaining 5:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32731234304/43360860176 (75.5%) @8.0x, remaining 5:29 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32851755008/43360860176 (75.8%) @8.0x, remaining 5:25 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

32972242944/43360860176 (76.0%) @8.0x, remaining 5:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33092796416/43360860176 (76.3%) @8.0x, remaining 5:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33208729600/43360860176 (76.6%) @7.7x, remaining 5:14 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33329250304/43360860176 (76.9%) @8.0x, remaining 5:10 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33449705472/43360860176 (77.1%) @8.0x, remaining 5:06 RBU 99.8% UBU 97.0%

33570258944/43360860176 (77.4%) @8.0x, remaining 5:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33690714112/43360860176 (77.7%) @8.0x, remaining 4:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33811234816/43360860176 (78.0%) @8.0x, remaining 4:55 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

33931722752/43360860176 (78.3%) @8.0x, remaining 4:51 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

34052276224/43360860176 (78.5%) @8.0x, remaining 4:47 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

34172764160/43360860176 (78.8%) @8.0x, remaining 4:43 RBU 99.8% UBU 97.0%

34293284864/43360860176 (79.1%) @8.0x, remaining 4:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

34413740032/43360860176 (79.4%) @8.0x, remaining 4:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

34529607680/43360860176 (79.6%) @7.7x, remaining 4:32 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

34650095616/43360860176 (79.9%) @8.0x, remaining 4:28 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

34770616320/43360860176 (80.2%) @8.0x, remaining 4:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

34891137024/43360860176 (80.5%) @8.0x, remaining 4:20 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

35011657728/43360860176 (80.7%) @8.0x, remaining 4:17 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35132145664/43360860176 (81.0%) @8.0x, remaining 4:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35252633600/43360860176 (81.3%) @8.0x, remaining 4:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35373187072/43360860176 (81.6%) @8.0x, remaining 4:05 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35493642240/43360860176 (81.9%) @8.0x, remaining 4:02 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

35614162944/43360860176 (82.1%) @8.0x, remaining 3:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35734716416/43360860176 (82.4%) @8.0x, remaining 3:54 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35850387456/43360860176 (82.7%) @7.7x, remaining 3:50 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

35970908160/43360860176 (83.0%) @8.0x, remaining 3:47 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

36091396096/43360860176 (83.2%) @8.0x, remaining 3:43 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36211916800/43360860176 (83.5%) @8.0x, remaining 3:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36332437504/43360860176 (83.8%) @8.0x, remaining 3:35 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36452925440/43360860176 (84.1%) @8.0x, remaining 3:32 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36573446144/43360860176 (84.3%) @8.0x, remaining 3:28 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36693901312/43360860176 (84.6%) @8.0x, remaining 3:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36814454784/43360860176 (84.9%) @8.0x, remaining 3:20 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

36934975488/43360860176 (85.2%) @8.0x, remaining 3:16 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37055463424/43360860176 (85.5%) @8.0x, remaining 3:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37171298304/43360860176 (85.7%) @7.7x, remaining 3:09 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37291884544/43360860176 (86.0%) @8.0x, remaining 3:05 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

37412339712/43360860176 (86.3%) @8.0x, remaining 3:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37532860416/43360860176 (86.6%) @8.0x, remaining 2:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37653348352/43360860176 (86.8%) @8.0x, remaining 2:54 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37773869056/43360860176 (87.1%) @8.0x, remaining 2:50 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

37894389760/43360860176 (87.4%) @8.0x, remaining 2:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

38014910464/43360860176 (87.7%) @8.0x, remaining 2:43 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

38135398400/43360860176 (87.9%) @8.0x, remaining 2:39 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

38255919104/43360860176 (88.2%) @8.0x, remaining 2:35 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

38376439808/43360860176 (88.5%) @8.0x, remaining 2:32 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

38496927744/43360860176 (88.8%) @8.0x, remaining 2:28 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

38612762624/43360860176 (89.0%) @7.7x, remaining 2:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

38733250560/43360860176 (89.3%) @8.0x, remaining 2:21 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

38853804032/43360860176 (89.6%) @8.0x, remaining 2:17 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

38974259200/43360860176 (89.9%) @8.0x, remaining 2:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39094747136/43360860176 (90.2%) @8.0x, remaining 2:10 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39215300608/43360860176 (90.4%) @8.0x, remaining 2:06 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39335788544/43360860176 (90.7%) @8.0x, remaining 2:02 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39456342016/43360860176 (91.0%) @8.0x, remaining 1:58 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39576731648/43360860176 (91.3%) @8.0x, remaining 1:55 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39697317888/43360860176 (91.6%) @8.0x, remaining 1:51 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

39817773056/43360860176 (91.8%) @8.0x, remaining 1:47 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

39933607936/43360860176 (92.1%) @7.7x, remaining 1:44 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40054095872/43360860176 (92.4%) @8.0x, remaining 1:40 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40174649344/43360860176 (92.7%) @8.0x, remaining 1:36 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40295104512/43360860176 (92.9%) @8.0x, remaining 1:33 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40415657984/43360860176 (93.2%) @8.0x, remaining 1:29 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40536145920/43360860176 (93.5%) @8.0x, remaining 1:25 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40656666624/43360860176 (93.8%) @8.0x, remaining 1:22 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40777187328/43360860176 (94.0%) @8.0x, remaining 1:18 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

40897675264/43360860176 (94.3%) @8.0x, remaining 1:14 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41018195968/43360860176 (94.6%) @8.0x, remaining 1:11 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41138749440/43360860176 (94.9%) @8.0x, remaining 1:07 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41254256640/43360860176 (95.1%) @7.7x, remaining 1:03 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41374744576/43360860176 (95.4%) @8.0x, remaining 1:00 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41495298048/43360860176 (95.7%) @8.0x, remaining 0:56 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41615851520/43360860176 (96.0%) @8.0x, remaining 0:52 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

41736306688/43360860176 (96.3%) @8.0x, remaining 0:49 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41852403712/43360860176 (96.5%) @7.7x, remaining 0:45 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

41971974144/43360860176 (96.8%) @7.9x, remaining 0:42 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

42091053056/43360860176 (97.1%) @7.9x, remaining 0:38 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

42209476608/43360860176 (97.3%) @7.9x, remaining 0:34 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

42327441408/43360860176 (97.6%) @7.8x, remaining 0:31 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

42444849152/43360860176 (97.9%) @7.8x, remaining 0:27 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

42556555264/43360860176 (98.1%) @7.4x, remaining 0:24 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

42672881664/43360860176 (98.4%) @7.7x, remaining 0:20 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

42788749312/43360860176 (98.7%) @7.7x, remaining 0:17 RBU 99.9% UBU 97.0%

42903994368/43360860176 (98.9%) @7.7x, remaining 0:13 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

43018715136/43360860176 (99.2%) @7.6x, remaining 0:10 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

43132944384/43360860176 (99.5%) @7.6x, remaining 0:06 RBU 100.0% UBU 97.0%

43246616576/43360860176 (99.7%) @7.5x, remaining 0:03 RBU 100.0% UBU 93.9%

43359731712/43360860176 (100.0%) @7.5x, remaining 0:00 RBU 3.4% UBU 97.0%

/dev/rcd0c: flushing cache

/dev/rcd0c: closing track

/dev/rcd0c: closing session

/dev/rcd0c: reloading tray

Both discs recorded in almost exactly 19½ minutes.

That's an average sustained writing speed of 35.25 Mb/second.

We can test the read performance in a similar way by using iostat with the -w 1 parameter. This will produce a line showing the current I/O statistics every second.

The read tests for the discs written above were fairly unremarkable, both read back in almost exactly 29 minutes and 20 seconds, with just one second difference between the two. Read speed started at 14 Mb/second, and peaked at just under 35 Mb/second in both cases, and finished at 21 Mb/second at the end of the recorded part of the second layer. That makes an average read speed of 23.5 Mb/second.

Drive oddities

The Asus drive has an annoying behaviour in that when it's sent an eject command it doesn't actually wait for it to complete before returning an acknowledgement to the system.

If you've used growisofs to write optical media before, you'll understand why this behaviour is tedious. At the end of a recording, growisofs ejects and immediately re-loads the tray. This eject-reload sequence works fine with the Pioneer drives, but the Asus drive seems to swallow the load command that is issued whilst the tray is still in the process of ejecting.

It's obviously fairly easy to work around this, but it's yet another thing that could so easily have worked out of the box. Instead it requires a software tweak.

Another difference between the Asus and Pioneer drives occurs right at the beginning of a recording. Whereas the Pioneer drives appear to accept 64 Kb of data into their buffers before the disc has even finished spinning up, the Asus drive seems to wait until the media is fully up to speed before it accepts anything. This doesn't cause any practical problems, but it might be a bit un-nerving if you've been used to using growisofs with another brand of recorder as it looks to the un-trained eye as if you're about to waste an expensive disc.

Both of these issues could also break any scripts that rely on drive-specific behaviour, so be sure to test any such scripts on all of the recording devices you intend to use.

Fun with DVD-RAM

Any serious backup or archival task with optical media today is likely to require at least the 23.3 Gb capacity of a single layer blu-ray disc. However, the general principles we've described can be applied to lower-capacity DVD and even CD media.

Before recordable blu-ray disc entered the market, our optical format of choice for general data storage here at Exotic Silicon was DVD-RAM. Whilst writing this article, I couldn't resist pulling out some of these long forgotten discs, dusting them off, and seeing what state they were in after sitting in our archives untouched for over a decade.

Despite ending up as something of a niche format compared to DVD+RW and DVD-RW, DVD-RAM had some nice features. Double-sided discs reached a capacity of 9.4 Gb, and the media could be housed in plastic caddies which not only physically protected it but offered a write-protect switch as well.

I tested five DVD-RAM discs out of those that we still have. One was a single-sided Verbatim brand disc, from which I was able to read 4.2 Gb of data perfectly. The other four were double sided, originally supplied in caddies from which they had long since been removed. Out of the eight sides, seven read with no problems apart from requiring cleaning with either a dry cloth, or with isopropyl alcohol.

The last side was the most difficult to read and the most interesting from the point of view of archival analysis. It didn't respond particularly well to the same cleaning as the other discs, so was treated to an extended cleaning in soap and hot water. This is certainly not a recommended procedure for any disc that you care about, but since the data on these discs certainly exists elsewhere on our systems anyway, I was only interested in seeing whether the data could be recovered from it for research purposes.

After cleaning, read performance improved. However, some blocks right at the end of the disc which had previously stubbornly rufused to be read at all, now read very slowly. Even more puzzlingly, the content of these blocks was entirely 0x00 bytes.

Further visual inspection of the disc, which is actually the one pictured in the background of this article, revealed the problem:

A small area of the disc has clearly never been written to, despite being surrounded by blocks that have been written to.

Reading from areas of a DVD-RAM disc that have never been written to is, indeed, very slow. This explains the behaviour I saw when trying to read this disc after cleaning. Quite possibly, the disc surface was contaminated with some kind of dirt from the very beginning whilst it was still inside it's caddy.

The few unrecoverable read errors that this side still produced were probably the result of data blocks at the edge of the contaminated area, which were never correctly written in the first place.

Finally, I did test writing some new data to the single-sided disc, and was able to read it back without any problems.

Closing remarks

Optical data storage is alive and well in 2022, and using it on an OpenBSD machine is fairly straightforward.